Psychological Pathways linking SES with Health 2010

Psychological Pathways linking SES with Health 2010 -...

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Unformatted text preview: PS62CH19-Matthews ARI 2 November 2010 14:55 Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health Karen A. Matthews 1 and Linda C. Gallo 2 1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, and 2 Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92120; email: matthewska@upmc.edu, lcgallo@sciences.sdsu.edu Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2011. 62:50130 The Annual Review of Psychology is online at psych.annualreviews.org This articles doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.031809.130711 Copyright c 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0066-4308/11/0110-0501$20.00 Key Words stress, resources, emotions, inammation, metabolic factors, sleep, race, gender, life course, socioeconomic status Abstract Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physi- cal health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform un- derstanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated dis- tress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accu- mulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. 501 PS62CH19-Matthews ARI 2 November 2010 14:55 Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 CONCEPTUALIZATION AND MEASUREMENT OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Resource versus Status-Based Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Traditional SES Indicators. . . . . 504 Contextual Approaches . . . . . . . . 505 Life Course Approaches . . . . . . . 506 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOSOCIAL PATHWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Stress and Distress. . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Psychosocial Resources . . . . . . . . 508 Integrative Models of Stress and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OVER THE LIFE COURSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Psychosocial Perspectives in Life Course Models . . . . . . . . 512 ALTERNATIVES TO CLINICAL DISEASE OUTCOMES IN STUDIES OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Subclinical Measures of Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . 513 Allostatic Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 AMBULATORY MEASURES OF BIOMARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . 516 OTHER BIOMARKERS. . . . . . . . . 517OTHER BIOMARKERS....
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