1456 summary - -endomembrane system-Protein synthesized in...

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Unformatted text preview: -endomembrane system-Protein synthesized in rough ER modified and sorted in the Golgi, and then transported to other organelles of the endomembrane system such as vacuoles. -Common between eukaryotes and prokaryotes: plasma membrane, cytoplasam, ribosome. -A cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to secrete a lot of protein and lipids -primarily involved in synthesizing molecules need by cell in endomembrane system. = ribosome, rer, ser -most proteins that function in chloroplasts and mitochondria ( not membrane system)are mad on free cytoplasmic ribosome and then imported in to their respective organelles. -possible site of protein synthesis= the cytoplasm, RER. And in mitochondria. -prekryotic do not have mitochondria. -high metabolic rates are determined by what happens, but the shape of the cell. -high surface area is likely to be associated with high transport rates of compounds!! -common between mitochondria and chloroplasts= contain DNA, more than two membrane, involved in ATP synthesis. -chloroplasts are part of the plastid family(including amyloplasts, chromoplats) -chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes are not part of the endomem.! -Secreted proteins are not synthesized on free cytoplasmic ribosomes. -The ribosomes in bacteria are prokaryotic. -the protein in the plasma membrance was actually different from the protein made in the ER, The protein was probably altered in the Golgi!!!!!! Goglgi changes it!! -prokaryotic cells have no membrane-bounded organelles. All of the membrane protein is made in RER Both ECM and cell wall were composed of varying mixture protein and carbohydrate -subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores -nucleous does not contain m RNA but nuclear pores!! -common between plant cell wall and animal cell -both are permeable to water and small solutes and both are produced in the ER and golgi apparatus. -proteins of the cell wall are made in the rough ER, and the polysaccharides are made in the Golgi - @K¸D 7@ ,h „ t ª * « ³0 -prokaryotic t · ø !! - DNA is an enzyme that puts together amino acids to make a protein. ­ ¶ “ � � « ‡0 prokaryotic � Chapter 4 ����� �� @K ‚ � � �� ­� ���� �� ­¨ ¶ ª *� ¡ � � � �� @ � �. 0 �. ( X 9 8•* � ¶“� � . ) – ¶ ª *� « ­@ @� � E µ * � � � �< ­( ª *� … « ³ � !! � � �� , ¨ ¶ * � � � � !! ¶ª* � ­Amino group acts as a base ­all funtinoal group is hydrophilic ­acetic acid is inorganic! ­� � � � � �� weak base! Chapter 5 ­) �� � �� � „ * � p ‚ D �� � ‚ D ���� I ‚D � � �‘ The glucose monomers in cellulose are bonded in beta glycosidic linkage, whereas those in starch have an alpha glycosidic linkage. The enzyme amylase is specific for the alpha glycosidic linkage. ­the backbone of a nucleic acid consists of alternating sugar and phosphate groups. ­purine of dna­Adenin and guanine ­prymidine of DNA thymine and cytosine ­Triacyglycerols consist of three fatty acid tails. ­ 88 • * �� ­Chaperonins Shield proteins from bad influences. Chapter 7 Plasmolysis : 8•“ �� �� 8 ; 8• * � !! � x ¡ 8 8 • ª , < � �� � � ‚D @K¸ ­facilitated diffusion of solutes may occur through protein pores in the membrane! ­pinocytosis:the uptake of water and small solutes into the cell by formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane. ­Phagocytosis(cellular eating) ­excytosis­ besicles derived from the endomembrane system fuse with the plasma membrane, thus incrasing the number of phospholipids in the plasma membrand and increasing ­both the electrical and chemical gradients contribute the energy to move ca2+ into the cells by facilitated diffusion as long as there is a channel or carrier that is specific for ca2+ ­proton � � �� � � x¡ ph � � �� � ¡ s • . ­The sodium­potassium pump is electrogenic!!! ­net movement ­endocytosis is the procedure that cells use to import large molecules across their plasma membrane ­membrane permeable ¨ ¶ “ � � ¡ ¶“ � � �� , permeable ( � � ��� permeable : • solution 8; • “ * � . “ 7 �� � @ . � � tonicity Membrane protein � � ­ � cytoskeleton 8 8 •“* ­ : 8 “* ­8 ; · “ ­membrane proteins with short sugae chains form identification tage that are recognized by other cells! ­in cells, the membrane potential that develops is always negative on the inside, positive on the outside! ­membrane carbohydrates function primarily in cell cell recognition, ­ :8 •“ * � � e �� ˆ :8 •“ * � e �� � e �� � e � e �� � ˆ :8 •“ * e �� �� e � e �� e �� � e �� e �� . ­ :8 •“ * � � e e �� e e �� e �� � ˆ :8 •“ phagocytosis e e � e �� ˆ :8 •“ pinocytosis e e �� , e �� � e , ˆ :8 •“ ee e �� e e, e �� e � e ˆ : 8·ª ­diffusion s • “ * � « ³ 0 !! ­sodium potassium pump 8 ; 8 • diffusion 8 8 • “ !! ­� � � � � � x ¡ o2,n2,lipids­h20,co2,glycerol,urea,glucose, sucrose­ na+,ca+(charged) ­ ª � � ­motor protein provide for molecule motion in cell by interactin with what type of cellular structure ­cytoskeleton Which of the following is not an organelle­ribosome Which of the following polysaccharides is the most water soluble Glycogen­starch­cellulose Which of the following statement is true ­Ł z “ * � « 0 � � � ­there are 20 different aminos what makes one amino acid different ­side chain! When biologist want to internal _TEM A cell has cell membrane nucles, other membrane bonde organelles this is not an bacteria. What make plasma membrane different ­nuclear envelope ­prypheral protein can not pass membrane Voltage � � � � � � membrane ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course BUSSINESS 221242 taught by Professor Michaeldouglas during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Perimeter.

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