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ch 12 - Biology 2107 Chapter 12 Cell Division Reproduction...

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Chapter 12 Cell division 1 Biology 2107 Chapter 12 Cell Division: Reproduction, growth, and repair Prokaryotes and unicellular organisms: two identical offspring Genome: total genetic material of an organism. In human, somatic cells have 46 chr and sex cells have 23 chr. What is a chr? A long, linear DNA carrying thousands of genes What is chromatin? DNA-protein complex, long fibers Proteins: Histon- help control activity of genes. Chromosomes duplicate (making another copy of themselves). Two sister chromatids attached to each other at a point called “centromere”. Mitosis: division of nucleus Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm Meiosis: (cell division by chromosome reduction) cell division in sex cells. Daughter cells have half of parents (one copy) chromosome. The mitotic cell cycle: Mitosis (M phase) is one part of the cell cycle. M phase: is followed by long interphase: 90% G1 phase: first gap G2 “ : second gap S : DNA synthesis phase Mitosis has 5 stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitotic spindle: Made from microtubules and associated proteins in cytoplasm during prophase. Assembly stars at CENTROSOME: microtubule assembly center. It divides during S phase
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Chapter 12 Cell division 2 Centriols: One pair is located close to nucleus(in centrosome) in animal cell. One goes to each pole and spindle microtubules grow from them. (Role in cell division? Kinetochore: A structure of protein and part of chr on each sister chromatid. Microtubules attach to it and pull two sister chromatids apart. How sister chromatids move to pole? By shortening of microtubules at kinetochore. Non-kinetochore microtubules are responsible for elongating the whole cell Regulation of cell cycle: Cells divide and differentiate at different rates: Skin cells: frequent division Nerve and muscle cells: no division in mature individual.
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