Running head: ASTHMA PREVALENCE IN CHICAGO AND NEW YORK1Asthma Prevalence in Chicago and New YorkNameInstitution
ASTHMA PREVALENCE IN CHICAGO AND NEW YORK2Asthma Prevalence in Chicago and New YorkANSWER THIS QUESTIONS IN BULLET POINTS1.Describe asthma and the risk factors/etiological factors for asthma. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease where an individual's airway becomes inflamed, narrow and swell, and produces extra mucus, which makes it difficult for the victim to breathe.The leading risk factor is genetic, and studies have shown that genetics plays an important role in the development of asthma through various genes of moderate effects. Such genes include the recently identified gene ORMDL3 (Subbarao, Mandhane & Sears, 2009). Prenatal parent smoking is also associated with asthma as there is a close relationship between exposure to smoke and decreased airway caliber in the early years of development (Subbarao, Mandhane & Sears, 2009). Prenatal stress is also a risk factor, and suggestions show that prenatal maternal stress affects the regulation of the child's hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, this decreasing cortisol levels (Subbarao, Mandhane & Sears, 2009).Decreased airway caliber in the early years of development is a risk factor for transient wheezing associated with asthma development, and this is closely associated with exposure to tobacco smoking in infancy (Subbarao, Mandhane & Sears, 2009). 2.What are the geographical and racial disparities for asthma in the United States?
ASTHMA PREVALENCE IN CHICAGO AND NEW YORK3The two races that are affected most with asthma in the United States are the African-Americans and Hispanics.The most affected race is the Puerto Ricans, who holds the highest prevalence compared to other cultures.The community that is least affected by asthma in the United States are the whites.One of the leading states with asthma prevalence in the United States is New York, with approximately 1.2 million New Yorkers identified to be suffering from asthma in 2008 (DiNapoli, 2014).The other leading state with the cases of asthma in Chicago and the records show that over 50% of children in the region are often diagnosed with asthma (Respiratory Health Association of Metropolitan Chicago, 2007).