JTB_slides

JTB_slides - What is knowledge? What then is the difference...

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What is knowledge?
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• What then is the difference between knowledge and mere true belief? The short answer is that knowledge is true belief plus justification , so that a person knows that A just in case: • they believe that A A is true • their belief that A is justified (These are called the ‘JTB conditions’, standing for J ustified T rue B elief.)
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BELIEF A belief, as philosophers use the term, is something that you take to be the case, i.e. something that, according to you, is true. Thus, if you take it to be the case that water is H 2 O then you believe that water is H 2 O. If Mars has two moons, according to you, then you believe that Mars has two moons. Note that some beliefs are sure, or certain. If you’re absolutely certain that the world is round, then you believe that the world is round.
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Truth • Truth means correspondence to (agreement with) the objective facts. • Objective facts seem to be very much like beliefs, except that they are somehow objective, or “in the world” rather than “in the head”. • Truth is mysterious, as it’s hard to see how belief-like things could exist in the world.
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Justified Belief • Math example: a belief produced by good reasoning is justified. • In this case, one’s “epistemic duty” is to believe only what can be supported by careful reasoning. (There are other “cognitive processes” that produce beliefs, such as memory and perception.)
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Epistemic duties – Laurence Bonjour ( The Structure of Empirical Knowledge , p. 8) It follows that one’s cognitive endeavors are justified only if and to the extent that they are aimed at this goal, which means very roughly that one accepts all and only those beliefs which one has good reason to think are true. To accept a belief in the absence of such a reason ... is to neglect the pursuit of truth; such acceptance is, one might say, epistemically irresponsible . My contention here is that the idea of avoiding such irresponsibility, of being epistemically responsible in one’s believings, is the core of the notion of epistemic justification.”
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5. INTERNAL MARKERS OF JUSTIFICATION • In ideal cases of justification, at least, there
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2010 for the course PHIL 1101 taught by Professor Johns during the Fall '10 term at Langara.

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JTB_slides - What is knowledge? What then is the difference...

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