AP Ch 12 Solutions - Physical Properties of Solutions...

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Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 12 Solution Stoichiometry end of Chapter 4 Problems: 12.12, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.21, 12.22, 12.28, 12.36, 12.38, 12.51, 12.54, 12.55, 12.57, 12.60, 12.65, 12.76, 12.77, 12.112 4.12, 4.60, 4.70, 4.72, 4.74, 4.77, 4.88
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12.1 A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount
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An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte 4.1
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A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature. An unsaturated solution contains less solute than the solvent has the capacity to dissolve at a specific temperature. A supersaturated solution contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution at a specific temperature. Sodium acetate crystals rapidly form when a seed crystal is added to a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate. 12.1
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12.2 Three types of interactions in the solution process: solvent-solvent interaction solute-solute interaction solvent - solute interaction H soln = H 1 + H 2 + H 3
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like dissolves like Two substances with similar intermolecular forces are likely to be soluble in each other. non-polar molecules are soluble in non-polar solvents CCl 4 in C 6 H 6 polar molecules are soluble in polar solvents C 2 H 5 OH in H 2 O ionic compounds are more soluble in polar solvents NaCl in H 2 O or NH 3 ( l ) 12.2
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Concentration Units The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. Percent by Mass % by mass = x 100% mass of solute mass of solute + mass of solvent = x 100% mass of solute mass of solution 12.3 Mole Fraction (X) X A = moles of A sum of moles of all components
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Concentration Units Continued M = moles of solute liters of solution Molarity (M) Molality (m) m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) 12.3
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What is the molality of a 5.86 M ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) solution whose density is 0.927 g/mL? m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) M = moles of solute liters of solution Assume 1 L of solution: 5.86 moles ethanol = 270 g ethanol 927 g of solution (1000 mL x 0.927 g/mL) mass of solvent = mass of solution – mass of solute = 927 g – 270 g = 657 g = 0.657 kg m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) = 5.86 moles C 2 H 5 OH 0.657 kg solvent = 8.92 m 12.3
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AP Ch 12 Solutions - Physical Properties of Solutions...

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