Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Exploring life LIFE How do you define...

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Chapter 1 Exploring life
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LIFE How do you define it? How can you tell something is living? What characteristics do all living things share? What characteristics do living things share with non-living things? Why do we call some things ‘non-living’?
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Life can be organized into a hierarchy, with new properties emerging at each level Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology Life emerges through organization of various levels With addition of each new level, novel properties emerge—called emergent properties 0
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Atom Molecule Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Levels of Biological Organization
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Something in Common… All living things share characteristics 1. Order 2. Regulation 3. Energy processing 4. Reproduction 5. Growth and development 6. Response to the environment 7. Evolutionary adaptation
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1. Order All living things are composed of one or more cells and are complexly organized Something in Common…
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2. Regulation (aka Homeostasis) All living things must maintain stable internal conditions the environment is variable, so living things must find ways to stabilize their interior conditions ie. The human body has an internal temperature of 37C (98.6F) in both hot and cold weather. Deviating from this temperature too much can be harmful to the body Something in Common…
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Something in Common… 3. Energy processing (aka Metabolism) Living things acquire materials and energy. Energy is necessary for living things to maintain homeostasis, carry out cellular activities and grow. The ultimate source of energy is the sun. Some organisms (plants and algae) have the capacity to capture and use the sun’s energy. **Photosynthesis** Organisms that cannot carry out photosynthesis must obtain nutrients made by photosynthesizers. » Humans get energy from plants or plant-eating animals
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The ultimate source of energy (for most ecosystems) is the sun. The ultimate fate of energy in ecosystems is for it to be lost as heat . Energy and nutrients are passed from organism to organism through the food chain as one organism eats another. Decomposers remove the last energy from the remains of organisms. Inorganic nutrients are cycled, energy is not
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Something in Common… 4. Reproduction Organisms reproduce their own kind Sexual and asexual Some organisms simply split themselves in two. In most multicellular organisms, fusion of a sperm and egg required. LIFE COMES ONLY FROM LIFE. All organisms have DNA Heredity is the transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring. Heredity is possible because of the ability of DNA to replicate faithfully and be passed on from one generation to the next
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DNA D eoxyribon ucleic a cid : DNA DNA is the genetic (hereditary) material of all cells A gene is a discrete unit of DNA The molecular structure of DNA accounts for its function
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2010 for the course BIOS 101 taught by Professor Plantz during the Spring '08 term at UNL.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Exploring life LIFE How do you define...

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