spectacle_lecture_11_12_09 - Lecture notes military...

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Lecture notes 11/12/09: military re-enactments reminder: quiz #5 is on Tuesday The Roman army -- WoR notes that the Roman army became more professional (and less of a citizen militia) during the late Republic; instead of restricting army service to citizen men who could pay for their own armor and equipment (and wouldn’t need much of a pension after their service), the warlords of the late Republic threw open army service to all citizens, and got bigger pensions for them --this led to more of a personal loyalty to a particular commander from this or that legion, as we’ve talked about --under the Empire, the trend towards professionalization continued: Augustus reformed the army command, promotion, and compensation structures to create a professional standing army --Augustus also wisely foresaw that this regularization and standardization of army service would decrease the personal loyalty factor and thus minimize coup attempts coming from the army; the only two coups led by army commanders were against emperors who’d shown no interest in the army whatsoever (Nero in the 1 st c. CE and Commodus in the 2 nd c. CE) Re-enactments of land battles --Claudius reenacted the surrender of the British chieftains to him on the Field of Mars in the center of Rome after his triumph, with imported authentic huts, costumes, weapons, the works Re-enactments of sea battles ( naumachiae ) --Julius Caesar seems to have been the first to stage naumachiae , as part of his quadruple triumph in 46 BCE --many other emperors after him staged them, as part of a trend of trying to outdo one’s predecessor: Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Domitian all staged naumachiae --these spectacles also tapped into the growing trend for the emperor to present himself as godlike during his reign, and often (although not always) to be deified after his death types of water spectacles: Battles: o either with full-sized or somewhat miniaturized ships, depending on who you read o thousands of sailors and marines involved (really slaves costumed as such) o could recreate historical sea battles (the Battle of Salamis) or imagine ones between sea-powers that never met (“Egyptians” vs. “Persians”) Swimming (a kind of aquatic pantomime): o reenacting the myth of Hero and Leander o Water ballet with naked Nereids Animals:
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o hunting sea-creatures (seals, fish, crocodiles, hippos?) o forcing land animals to swim (horses, bulls) racing chariots through a thin layer of water (so it looked like they were flying
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spectacle_lecture_11_12_09 - Lecture notes military...

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