ESS15_LEC3F10_Bathymetry_2perpage - Introduction to...

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9/28/10 1 Introduction to Oceanography Lecture 3: The shape of the ocean floor Plumbago, wikimedia commons, C C A S-A 3.0 Announcements Attend Your Lab Section! TA’s have PTE#’s NASA image, Public Domain
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9/28/10 2 Basic Structure of the Earth Layers of increasing density – Thin Crust 2.5 to 3.0 gm/cm 3 – Rocky mantle 3.2 to > 5 gm/cm 3 Metallic core >10 gm/cm 3 Planetary Radius: 6371 km Core Mantle Figure E. Schauble 6371 km Crust 5-70 km Compositional Layers of Earth Hand samples: Granite (cont’l. crust), Basalt (ocean crust), peridotite (mantle), iron meteorite (core) Thin crustal surface layer (almost all we see) Oceanic (basalt) ~8 km thick Continental (granite) ~35 km thick Mantle (silicate rock) – Bulk of planet’s volume ~ 2900 km thick • Core – Iron-rich inner part of the planet Core Mantle Figure E. Schauble 6371 km Crust 5-70 km
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9/28/10 3 Mechanical Layers of Earth Lithosphere Top ~100km Cold and strong Includes crust, part of mantle Asthenosphere Beneath lithosphere Hot and plastic Rigid on short timescales, flows on long timescales Michael Pidwirny, Physical Geography Fundamentals e- Book, Fig. 10h Layering of mechanical strength USGS, Public Domain STRONG, SOLID WEAK, SOLID STRONGER, SOLID WEAK, LIQUID ?, SOLID Lithosphere
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9/28/10 4 So the Mantle Isn’t Melted? NO! It’s solid, except in a few places (see plate tectonics). Solid lithosphere Solid asthenosphere Partly-melted mantle Mid-ocean ridge volcanoes ! 100 km USGS, Presumed Public Domain Convection in the Mantle Mantle convection removes heat from Earth’s interior Occurs on 100 million year timescales How do we know this? Seismic tomography Image from NASA, presumed Public Domain, Calculating_Image_Statistics.html
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9/28/10 5 QUESTIONS? Gurnis research group, Caltech, ~gurnis/Movies/ Dynamic_Int_EI/qt-movies.html. The Big Picture: Continents vs. Ocean Basins Plumbago, wikimedia commons, C C A S-A 3.0
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9/28/10 6 The Big Picture: Bimodal Distribution -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 Elevation (meters) Fraction of Earth's surface area Histogram of elevations on Earth Ocean Land Figure E. Schauble based on ETOPO5 data (NOAA), as sampled by S.L. Goldstein and S.
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  • Fall '10
  • Aurnou
  • Plate Tectonics, Public domain, Wikimedia Commons, abyssal plains, E. Schauble

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