ESS15_LEC5F10_PTect1_2perpage

ESS15_LEC5F10_PTect1_2perpage - ! Lecture 5: Plate...

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1 Introduction to Oceanography • Lecture 5: Plate Tectonics part 1 Adapted from USGS image by various wikimedia commons contributors, Public Domain Introduction to Oceanography •Check lab exercise key outside 3820 Geology. •1st lab quizzes this week! “mid-ocean ridge” at Thingvellir, Iceland, Julius Agrippa, Wikimedia Commons, C C A S-A 2.5
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2 Morphology of the Oceans Continental Margins Abyssal Plains Mid-Ocean Ridges Deep-sea Trenches Continent Ocean Basin Plumbago, wikimedia commons, C C A S-A 3.0 LA OC Catalina Santa Barbara SD Southern California Margin • Southern CA has an unusual margin Map Courtesy C. Goldfinger and J. Chaytor, OSU, from USCD Earthguide online classroom ~30 km
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3 Southern Californian Borderland • Pervasive active faulting and tectonics – No broad flat shelf region – Instead, fault bounded ridges and basins – Ridges can form islands (i.e., Catalina) – Basins can be 1 - 2 km deep – Continental slope ~80-100 km west Los Angeles sits on a silted up basin! LA OC Catalina Santa Barbara SD Deep Ocean Basins What about in the very center of the ocean basins? Mid-ocean ridge Plumbago, wikimedia commons, C C A S-A 3.0
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4 Mid-Ocean Ridges • Earth’s longest continuous mountain chain ~ 60,000 km long, ~1/3 of ocean floor area Relief: ~ 2-3 km above abyssal plains NOAA global relief map, Public Domain The Mid-Ocean Ridge System GEBCO world map, http://www.gebco.net, education use ok.
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5 The Mid-Ocean Ridge System Abyssal Plain MARGIN Mid-ocean ridge GEBCO world map, http://www.gebco.net, education use ok. Mid-Ocean Ridge Features • Ridge Axis Rift Valley – Depth ~ 1 km, Width ~ 10 -20 km – Widespread volcanism – Shallow earthquakes – Right-angle fracture zones GEBCO world map, http://www.gebco.net, education use ok. East Pacific Rise Mid-Atlantic Ridge
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6 Mid-Ocean Ridges & Isostasy • Keeping isostasy in mind, why do mid-ocean ridges stand up so high above the ocean bottom? ~2 km NASA art, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ridge_render.jpg, Public Domain Questions? • Why do we have oceanic and continental crusts? • Why are there deep-sea trenches, mid-ocean ridges and long seamount chains? Shelf Break Slope Rise Cont’l Crust Oceanic Crust Sediment Cidnye, wikimedia commons, Public Domain (Not to scale)
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7 Introduction to Plate Tectonics NOAA global relief map, Public Domain History of Plate Tectonic Theory Plate tectonics is a fundamental, unifying theory in all of the Earth Sciences. Explains locations of most earthquake zones, volcanoes, the age of the sea floor, and the shape of the Earth’s surface. Plate tectonic theory has only been accepted for ~40
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course GEOG ESS15 taught by Professor Aurnou during the Fall '10 term at UCLA.

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ESS15_LEC5F10_PTect1_2perpage - ! Lecture 5: Plate...

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