ESS15_LEC10F10_Seds_2perpage - Introduction to Oceanography...

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1 Sediment drill cores from the first mission of the RV Chikyu. Image from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Lecture 10: Sediments Introduction to Oceanography Introduction to Oceanography •1st Midterm held in class, Friday Oct. 22 Sections A, B, D, H, L, M ! Humanities A51 (all sections with Mark or Rob as TA) Sections C, E, F, G, I, J, N, O ! Moore 100 (all sections with Ian, Ellen or Michelle as TA) Midterm review session (question & answer format) Oct. 20, 5:00pm - 7:00pm in Franz 1178 Vancouver, Canada, E. Schauble, UCLA
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2 Global Distribution & Thickness of Marine Sedimentary Layers Region Percent of Ocean Volume % of Seds Average Thickness Continental Margins 22% 87% 7.5 km (4.7 mi) Deep-Sea Floor 78% 13% 0.6 km (0.4 mi) Grain Size Sediment Classification Typical Particle Sizes: Particle Name Particle Diameter Gravel, Granules & Pebbles 2 -64 mm Sand 0.062 - 2 mm Silt 0.004 - 0.062 mm Clay < 0.004 mm Peas: Renee Comet, Natl. Cancer Inst., Public Domain, ; Sugar, Fritzs, Wikimedia Commons, CC A S-A 3.0, http:// visualsonline.cancer.gov/details.cfm?imageid=2612; Powdered sugar, Wikimedia Commons, JonathanLamb, Public Domain, File:Confectioners-sugar.jpg; Laser printer, Wikimedia Commons, Pierre Bauduin, CC A S-A 3.0, http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HP_LaserJet_4000n.jpg
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3 Grain Size Dependent Transport Pebbles : Hard to transport (storms, big surf, fast rivers & steep streams) Sand : in the middle (small surf, most rivers & streams) Clays : Easy to transport (tides, slow streams & rivers, long range transport by wind) High energy Low energy From Sediment Transport Movie archive, Paul Heller, U. Wyoming, sed_video_downloads.htm Genetic Classification of Sediments Terri genous : from continents Bio genous : from biological sources Hydro genous : seawater precipitates Sometimes referred to as “authigenic” -- means formed in place Cosmo genous : extraterrestrial sources
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4 Terri genous Sediment Sources Weathering & erosion of continental crust Dominant source of marine sediment (rich in SiO 2 , silicates) Mostly deposited in continental margins Continental shelf sediments :
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  • Fall '10
  • Aurnou
  • Sediment, Wikimedia Commons, Continental shelf, Pelagic sediments, biogenous sediments, CC A S-A

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