ESS15_LEC11F10_SedsSeawater_2perpage

ESS15_LEC11F10_SedsSeawater_2perpage - Introduction to...

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1 Lecture 11: Sediments and seawater Introduction to Oceanography Vancouver, Canada, E. Schauble, UCLA Introduction to Oceanography Extra Credit video screening “Condition Black” Oct. 22, 6:00pm - 7:30pm Moore 100 Monterey Bay Aquarium wave room, E. Schauble, UCLA •Midterm: Friday Oct. 22 Sections A, B, D, H, L, M ! Humanities A51 Sections C, E, F, G, I, J, N, O ! Moore 100 Midterm review session (question & answer format) Oct. 20, 5:00pm - 7:00pm in Franz 1178
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2 Grain Size Sediment Classification • Typical Particle Sizes: Particle Name Particle Diameter Gravel, Granules & Pebbles 2 -64 mm Sand 0.062 - 2 mm Silt 0.004 - 0.062 mm Clay < 0.004 mm Peas: Renee Comet, Natl. Cancer Inst., Public Domain, http://visualsonline.cancer.gov/details.cfm?imageid=2612; Sugar, Fritzs, Wikimedia Commons, CC A S-A 3.0, http:// visualsonline.cancer.gov/details.cfm?imageid=2612; Powdered sugar, Wikimedia Commons, JonathanLamb, Public Domain, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Confectioners-sugar.jpg; Laser printer, Wikimedia Commons, Pierre Bauduin, CC A S-A 3.0, http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HP_LaserJet_4000n.jpg Genetic Classification of Sediments Terri genous : from continents Bio genous : from biological sources Hydro genous : seawater precipitates Sometimes referred to as “authigenic” -- means formed in place Cosmo genous : extraterrestrial sources
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3 Hydrogenous Sedimentary Deposits • Chemical deposits formed by precipitation – Grow at water-sediment interface – Manganese nodules “Hughes” Glomar Explorer USGS/NOAA, Public Domain, http:// www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/nodule.gif Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec-e/30th/part6/image/p86_1.jpg Attribution uncertain, appears to be widely disseminated, (e.g., http:// www.aerospaceweb.org/question/ weapons/q0268.shtml) and thus may be Public Domain Cosmogenic Sediments Sediments from space Cosmic dust or meteorite impact K-T Boundary layer, Gulf of Mexico sediment core, MARUM Research Center Ocean Margins, Bremen University , Bremen – Germany, http://www.imaggeo.net/view/45 Older Younger
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4 K-T boundary in sediment Norris et al. (1997) Ocean Drilling Program Preliminary Report, http://www-odp.tamu.edu/ publications/prelim/171B_prel/171Bprel.pdf Impact crater Sample location Figure based on GEBCO bathymetric map Tektites, Mila Zinkova, Wikimedia Commons, CC A S-A 3.0, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Two_tektites.JPG Rate of sediment addition: Sediment Type Rate (m/Myr) Continental Margins ~ > 50 = 0.05 mm/yr Deep Sea Calcareous 10 - 30 Siliceous 2 - 10 Clay 0.5 - 2 Manganese Nodules 0.001 fast slow
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5 BIG PICTURE ON SEDIMENTS • Terrigenous near continents • High Bioproductivity: – Calcareous oozes above CCD – Silicieous oozes below CCD • Abyssal clays where nothing else is getting deposited • Give recent (~200 Myr) historical record
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course GEOG ESS15 taught by Professor Aurnou during the Fall '10 term at UCLA.

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ESS15_LEC11F10_SedsSeawater_2perpage - Introduction to...

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