Ch 16 Waves and Sound - Lecture Notes 16 Waves and Sound...

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Waves and Sound Lecture Notes 16
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± To describe mechanical waves. ± To study superposition, standing waves and sound. ± To present sound as a standing longitudinal wave. ± To see that waves will interfere (add constructively and destructively). ± To study sound intensity and beats. ± To solve for frequency shifts (the Doppler Effect). ± To examine applications of acoustics and musical tones. Goals
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The Nature of Waves: Waves and Particles are two great concepts in classical physics. Types of waves: Mechanical (water, sound, seismic), Electromagnetic (light, radio, television, microwaves, X rays, radar waves,…), Matter waves (electrons, protons, atoms, molecules,…) Water waves have two features common to all waves: (1) A wave is a traveling disturbance . (2) A wave carries energy from place to place . ¾ There is no bulk flow of water outward (like a river for example). ¾ You can feel the transfer of energy in water following a certain disturbance.
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Trough Propagation of wave Crest Transverse Waves: An upward pulse moves to the right, followed by a downward pulse. When the end of the string (or Slinky ) is moved up and down continuously, a transverse wave is produced. A transverse wave is one in which the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave Examples of transverse waves : Radio waves and light waves. Transverse waves also travel on the strings of musical instruments such as guitar and banjos .
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Propagation of the EM waves
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Propagation of the EM waves
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Transverse Waves
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Generating a Sinusoidal Transverse Wave: An object undergoing SHM can cause the disturbance and the medium can be a string, cord or rope under tension.
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Longitudinal Waves: A longitudinal wave is one in which the disturbance is parallel to the line of travel of the wave Examples of longitudinal waves: Sound Waves . A compressed region moves to the right, followed by a stretched region. When the end of the Slinky is moved back and forth continuously, a longitudinal wave is produced.
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Longitudinal Waves
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The motion of water molecules on the surface of deep water in which a wave is propagating is a combination of transverse and longitudinal displacements, with the result that molecules at the surface move in nearly circular paths . Each molecule is displaced both horizontally and vertically from its equilibrium position. Some waves are neither transverse nor longitudinal:
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16.1 The Nature of Waves Water waves are partially transverse and partially longitudinal.
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Water Waves Rayleigh Waves
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16.2 Periodic Waves Periodic waves consist of cycles or patterns that are produced over and over again by the source . In the figures, every segment of the slinky vibrates in simple harmonic motion, provided the end of the slinky is moved in simple harmonic motion.
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Periodic Waves: For periodic waves, the terms cycle , amplitude , period , and frequency have the same meaning as they do in simple harmonic motion Amplitude Time Distance Undisturbed position Period= T Vertical position of one point on the slinky position of the slinky Wavelength= λ A A One cycle One cycle (a) At a particular time (b) At a particular location
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course PHY phy135 taught by Professor Weighgabriel during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.