xp - EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND DESIGN Experimental Research...

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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND DESIGN Experimental Research - An attempt by the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Experimental Design - A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to test his hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about relationships between independent and dependent variables. It refers to the conceptual framework within which the experiment is conducted. Steps involved in conducting an experimental study Formulate hypotheses and deduce their Construct an experimental design that r consequences. 1. Select sample of subjects. 2. Group or pair subjects. 3. Identify and control non experimental factors. 4. Select or construct, and validate instruments to measure outcomes. 5. Conduct pilot study. 6. Determine place, time, and duration of the experiment. Conduct the experiment. Compile raw data and reduce to usable Apply an appropriate test of significance Essentials of Experimental Research Manipulation of an independent variable An attempt is made to hold all other var Effect is observed of the manipulation o - observation. Experimental control attempts to predict events that will occur in the experimental setting by neutralizing the effects of other factors.
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Selective Control - Manipulate indirectly by selecting in or out variables that cannot be controlled. Statistical Control - Variables not conducive to physical or selective manipulation may be controlled by statistical techniques (example: covariance). Validity of Experimental Design Internal Validity asks did the experimental treatment make the difference in this specific instance rather than other extraneous variables? External Validity asks to what populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables can this observed effect be generalized? Factors Jeopardizing Internal Validity History - The events occurring between the first and second measurements in addition to the experimental variable which might affect the measurement. Example: Researcher collects gross sales data before and after a 5 day 50% off sale. During the sale a hurricane occurs and results of the study may be affected because of the hurricane, not the sale. Maturation - The process of maturing which takes place in the individual during the duration of the experiment which is not a result of specific events but of simply growing older, growing more tired, or similar changes. Example: Subjects become tired after completing a training session, and their responses on the Posttest are affected. Pre-testing - The effect created on the second measurement by having a measurement before the experiment. Example: Subjects take a Pretest and think about some of the items. On the Posttest they change to answers they feel are more acceptable. Experimental group learns from the pretest.
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