psych225 - CHAPTER ONE Universal vs context-specific o...

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CHAPTER ONE: Universal vs. context-specific o Universal: one path of development no matter their life o Context-specific: culture influences path of development Psychodynamic perspective (Freud): o Oral stage: 0-1 year; pleasure around mouth (sucking, chewing, biting, etc); if not satisfied, bite nails, smokers, alcoholics o Anal stage: 1-3 years; going to bathroom, toilet training; if not satisfied neat(anal) or sloppy as adult o Phallic stage: 3-6 years; pleasure in genital stimulation, desire opposite sex parent sexually boys experience castration anxiety, girls envy; causes them to identify with same sex parent o Latency stage: 6-11; no sex drive o Genital stage: adolescence; puberty, satisfying sexually, attracted to people outside family Classical conditioning: Pavlov & Watson; uncontrolled stimulus & uncontrolled response; controlled stimulus & controlled response Operant conditioning: Skinner; Reward/punishment system Social Learning Theory (Bandura): we learn by imitation Ecological approach (Bronfenbrenner): o Ecological theory: human development is inseperable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops o Microsystem: people & objects in an individual’s immediate environment (parents, child, etc) o Mesosystem: provides connections across Microsystems (school, friends) o Exosystem: social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but still influence development (parents’ social network, gvt & social policy, parents’ jobs) o
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