Biology of ethlene production and action in fruits - Copy

Biology of ethlene production and action in fruits - Copy -...

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The biology of ethylene production and action in fruits
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Ethylene - an important factor Useful: Accelerates ripening Causes abscission A problem: Accelerates ripening Accelerates senescence Causes abscission
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What is ethylene? C 2 H 4 Very simple molecule A gas An important chemical feedstock A natural plant hormone
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Where does ethylene come from? Ripening fruits Smoke Illuminating gas Vehicle exhausts Ripening rooms
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History of ethylene in horticulture Fruit ripening Smoky rooms, ripening fruit Scarification of figs Wound ethylene Ethylene gas - plant growth regulator Ethylene causes ripening Produced by ripening fruits Role in plant growth and development Plant hormone Silver thiosulfate Biosynthesis pathway Etr-1 Amos, 1000 B.C. Neljubow, 1907 Cousins, 1913 Gane, 1932 Goeschl, 1960 Veen, 1978 Bleeker, 1988 Anon, prehistoric Yang, 1986
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Ethylene Air Neljubow, a graduate student in Russia, was the first to show that ethylene caused these strange effects on etiolated pea seedlings
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Ethylene responses Reduction in growth (seedlings) Loss of leaves and flowers (plants) Leaf yellowing or death (plants) Epinasty (leaves) Senescence (flowers) Ripening (fruits) Abscission (fruits, leaves, branches) Dehiscence (seeds)
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Characteristics of ethylene responses Threshold concentration (0.1 ppm) Plateau concentration (10 ppm) Associated respiration rise Temperature optimum (15 - 25 C) CO2 (>1%) inhibits
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Abscission of snapdragon flowers in response to ethylene shows a typical threshold and plateau response
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Respiration and ethylene production rise during fruit ripening
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Respiration - important physiological indicator Climacteric fruits Respiration and ethylene production rises during ripening Ripening induced by ethylene Bananas, apples, avocados, tomatoes, pears, many tropicals 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 Time (days) Respiration (mg CO2/kg/hr) Strawberry Tomato Tomato Strawberry Non-climacteric fruits Respiration falls steadily throughout development Ethylene not involved in ripening Citrus, grapes, olives, cherries, many berries
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Tools for working with ethylene: Measurement Expensive, but routine Bioassay - cheap, difficult Kitagawa tubes - $1 / measurement Gas chromatograph - $5,000 - 10,000 Photo-acoustic detector - $50,000
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Oven Detector Electrometer
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2010 for the course AGRONOMY PLB174 taught by Professor Michaelreid during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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Biology of ethlene production and action in fruits - Copy -...

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