Plant Biology Bis1c - Lecture 20 Protista T h e P r o t is...

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Lecture 20 - Protista The Protista - paraphyletic Generalized life cycles Algal groups Dinophyta, Bacillariophyta, Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta The transition to land
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Phycology Examination of algae, the photosynthetic group of protists
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Why are Algae important? 1- Food Brown and red algae eaten regularly as vegetable. Brown alga (kelp) used as vegetable in China and Japan Red alga (porphyra) eaten as sushi 3- Fertilizer 4- Production of alginates A group of substances used as thickening agent & colloid stabilizer in: food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and paper industries 2- Protection Shelter for fish and invertebrates
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Why are Algae important? 5- Agar Mucilaginous material derived form red algae cell walls & used in: Culture media for bacteria and microorganisms Gel electrophoresis Capsule that contain vitamin and drugs Dental impressions material Cosmetics Anti-drying agent in bakeries; Jellies and desserts Temporary preservative of meat and fish Carrageenan derived from red alga used for stabilization of emulsion of paints and cosmetics& dairy products Diatomaceous earth
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Colonial (Volvox ) Giant Kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ) An array of unicellular diatoms under the light microscope
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The Dinophyta The Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta) Related to Paramecium (protozoan) - ingest food! Fresh water and marine Their nuclear membranes do not disintegrate during cell division Their chromosomes are always condensed and have no histones Have two flagella - one in groove around cell and another vertical, they spin as the flagella beat They have cellulose plates in vesicles inside the outer cell membrane They cause red tides and toxic blooms in water. Gymnodinium breve is the cause. Large bodies of water can turn reddish brown. Toxins cause neurologic damage Have chl a, c and carotenoids, chloroplasts have 4 membranes They can occur as symbionts in coral reefs Bioluminescent forms! They can form resting cysts under low nutrient conditions Haploid cells - make haploid swimming gametes that fuse to make dipoid zygote. After a resting period the zygote undergoes meiosis
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Dinophyta Two flagella - movement like a spinning top Plasmamembrane Cellulose plates inside vesicles
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Dinophyta
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Peridinium , a salt-water dinoflagellate,. SEM X460. Credit: © Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited Dinoflagellate Flagella in perpendicular grooves
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A bioluminescent dinoflagellate ( Pyrodinium bahamense ). SEM X2600.
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