2 Cell and Tissue Types

2 Cell and Tissue Types - Lecture: 2 BioSci 1C Mar.29.07...

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Lecture: 2 BioSci 1C Mar.29.07 Plant Cells and Tissues
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How do plants grow so tall? How they transport water and mineral? How do they live so long?
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Basic types of plant cells Plants like all multicelluar organisms begin as a single cell These cells are meristematic cells: Cells that can divide and produce new cells. Meristems (from Greek meristos , “divided”): Regions of the mereistematic cells that produce new growth, and are present in all types of plants
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Basic types of plant cells There are tree basic types of differentiated cells 1- Parenchyma (pair-RENK-kuh-muh) 2- Collenchyma (cole-LEN-kuh-muh) 3- Sclerenchyma (sklair-RENK-kuh-muh)
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Parenchyma Greek word parenchein meaning “to pour in beside” Most living cells are paranchyma, and they are the workhorse cells of plants They are the least specialized type of plant cell cells of plants, undergo relatively little differentiation before assuming their role as mature plant cells
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Parenchyma • Usually spherical or elongated • Thin primary cell wall • Perform basic metabolic functions of cells – Respiration – Photosynthesis –S torage
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Parenchyma • Usually spherical OR elongated parenchyma cells pit parenchyma cell with lignified wall
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Parenchyma • Present in the apical meristems and the immature part of developing plants • In fruits, most of what you consume is probably parenchyma • Parenchyma cells can be totipotent, i.e. they can be removed and manipulated to divide and produce a new complete plant.
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Parenchyma • Usually live 1-2 years • May aggregate to form parenchyma tissue in – Cortex and pith of stems – Cortex of roots – Mesophyll of leaves
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Collenchyma Greek kolla , meaning “glue”, a reference to thick cellulose layers • Specialized to support young stems and leaf petioles • Often outermost cells of cortex • Elongated cells • Often contain chloroplasts • Living at maturity collenchyma cell
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Collenchyma • Walls composed of alternating layers of pectin and cellulose • The primary cell wall thickened in the corners, where they contact together cells. • This thickening allows collenchymas to provide extra strength • Plants living in windy environment produce much more collenchyma, thus plant bend without breaking. • Collenchyma makes most of the structural ribs in a stalk of celery.
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Sclerenchyma Greek skleros , meaning “hard” • Dead cells with thick secondary wall • Function to support weight of plant organs • Two types of cells –F ibers
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Fiber Cluster of green stained fiber form geranium The long thin cell fibers from tulip tree Sclereid Stone cells in Pears are sclereid Star shaped sclereid in water liliy Fiber and sclereid cells
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2 Cell and Tissue Types - Lecture: 2 BioSci 1C Mar.29.07...

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