18 Prokaryotes II - Potential events Cells with flexible...

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Lecture 18: Endosymbiosis and the origin of Eukaryotes April 30, 2007
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Transformation of relatively simple prokaryotic cells into complex and organized eukaryotic cells
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Prokaryotes called true bacteria Prokaryotes capable of living in extremes Include all eukaryotes Evolutionary tree
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Cyanobacterium Archaea Leaf EMs of three domains of life
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1- Eukaryotic cells are typically larger than the prokaryotic cells 2- Eukaryotic DNA is highly structured 3- Eukaryotic DNA is enclosed within nuclear envelope 4- Eukaryotic cells have internal cytoskeleton 5- Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria 6- Some eukaryotic cells have chloroplasts
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Cyanobacterium Leaf Serial endosymbiotic theory Chloroplast and mitochondria are bacterial descendents taken up by some ancient host cells
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What is an endosymbiont An organism that lives within another, dissimilar organism Serial endosymbiosis Process by which eukaryotic cells originated via a series (NOT SIMULTANEOUS) of events
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Ancestral host cell was a wall less heterotroph.
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Unformatted text preview: Potential events Cells with flexible plasma membrane capable of engulfing food particle by folding inward (endocytosis). What made plasma membrane flexible? 1- Presence of sterols 2- Cytoskeleton, specially microtubule Formation of endomembrane system. Potential events Enclosure of DNA within an intracellular sac (Nucleus) Mitochondria and chloroplast A phagocyte could prey on bacteria without digesting the precursors of mitochondria or chloroplast, BUT instead adopted them. This could have led to the establishment of a symbiotic (living together) relationship. Vorticella a modern protist with endosymbiotic relationship with some green alga Vorticella a heterotroph that obtains Photosynthetic products from algae. Algae in return obtains essential mineral nutrients from the host EM of Vorticella containing alga Each algal cell is in a separate vacuole bound by a single membrane...
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