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15 Fungi I handout

15 Fungi I handout - ribosomal RNA sequences suggest that...

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Lecture 15: Introduction to Organismal Diversity; Kingdom Fungi I. Organismal diversity and classification systems A. Organisms traditionally called "plants" include algae, photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, mosses, ferns, flowers, pine trees, and more. (Only the latter 3 actually belong to Kingdom Plantae.) How can these be organized in a scientific sense? B. Taxonomy = the identifying, naming, and classifying of species C. Phylogeny = the evolutionary relationships among organisms D. Cladistics = a set of quantitative methods and concepts for exploring the evolutionary relationships between taxa (e.g., species, genera, phyla, etc.) comparative morphology and anatomy vs. molecular techniques II. The major groups of organisms: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya III. Kingdom Fungi Mycology = study of fungi (from Greek mykes , fungus) A. Introduction - although they were traditionally grouped with plants, recent analysis of
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Unformatted text preview: ribosomal RNA sequences suggest that fungi are not only an independent evolutionary line, but are more closely related to animals! - drugs, alcohol, medicines, death, economic losses in the billions of dollars, failed invasion of Turkey by Peter the Great, important symbiotic relationships, etc. B. Characteristics 1. composed of hyphae (mass of hyphae = a mycelium) 2. hyphae of most species are separated by septa 3. hyphae lacking septa are coenocytic 4. cell walls of fungi contain chitin 5. fungi are heterotrophic and obtain their food by absorption (exozymes) 6. fungi have a zygotic life cycle that includes separate steps of plasmogamy and karyogamy C. The fungal phyla 1. Chytridiomycota 2. Glomeromycota 3. Zygomycota 4. Ascomycota 5. Basidiomycota IV. Phylum Chytridiomycota V. Phylum Glomeromycota - form symbiotic associations with 80% of plants ( endomycorrhizae ) VI. Digression: Life cycles VII. Phylum Zygomycota...
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