CFDa.6.internal - Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Internal Flows...

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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F1 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Internal Flows
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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F2 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Overvie w Reynolds experiment Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow momentum and thermal entrance effects Fully developed laminar flow exact solutions for laminar flows-Couette, Circular Tube (summary table including solutions for non-circular tubes, annulus) Fully developed turbulent flow Dimensional Analysis of pipe flow friction factor and the Moody chart Minor losses
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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F3 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Characteristics of Internal Flows This lecture deals with the transport of a viscous incompressible fluid (liquid or gas) in a closed conduit. The conduit walls do not deform and the conduits are filled with fluid. This scenario is typical of most real world applications The internal flow is influenced by the boundaries of the conduit in the form of shear. The shear results from the viscous effects in the boundary layer formed at the walls of the conduit. Open channel flow is not discussed.
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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F4 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Reynolds experiment Flows can be classified as either laminar or turbulent flow with a transition zone between the regimes Osborne Reynolds’ classical dye trace experiment demonstrates the classification of the flow Laminar Transitional Turbulent
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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F5 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Laminar and Turbulent Flow Laminar flow illustrates that little or no mixing of the dye occurs and the dye streak follows a distinct streamline. The fluid planes appear to slip over one another. The turbulent flow exhibits mixing and disperses the dye due to fluctuating (random) velocity components. In a smooth pipe of circular cross section, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at a Reynolds number of 2300. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity defined as where U is the upstream velocity, D is the pipe hydraulic diameter and ρ and μ are the fluid density and viscosity, respectively. μ ρ UD = Re
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© Fluent Inc. 12/05/10 F6 Fluids Review TRN-1998-004 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow In most real flow systems the flow conditions change along the axis of the flow due to viscous effects between the fluid and the wall.
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