01-intro - Lecture 1 Introduction to CFD Applied...

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1 Lecture 1 - Introduction to CFD Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker © André Bakker (2002-2006) © Fluent Inc. (2002)
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2 Fluid dynamics Fluid dynamics is the science of fluid motion. Fluid flow is commonly studied in one of three ways: Experimental fluid dynamics. Theoretical fluid dynamics. Numerically: computational fluid dynamics (CFD). During this course we will focus on obtaining the knowledge required to be able to solve practical fluid flow problems using CFD. Topics covered today include: A brief review of the history of fluid dynamics. An introductory overview of CFD.
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3 Antiquity Focus on waterworks: aqueducts, canals, harbors, bathhouses. One key figure was Archimedes - Greece (287-212 BC). He initiated the fields of static mechanics, hydrostatics, and pycnometry (how to measure densities and volumes of objects). One of Archimedes’ inventions is the water screw, which can be used to lift and transport water and granular materials.
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4 Leonardo da Vinci - Italy (1452-1519) Leonardo set out to observe all natural phenomena in the visible world, recognizing their form and structure, and describing them pictorially exactly as they are. He planned and supervised canal and harbor works over a large part of middle Italy. In France he designed a canal that connected the Loire and Saone. His contributions to fluid mechanics are presented in a nine part treatise ( Del moto e misura dell’acqua ) that covers the water surface, movement of water, water waves, eddies, falling water, free jets, interference of waves, and many other newly observed phenomena.
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5 Leonardo da Vinci “A Gigantic Explosion”
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6 Isaac Newton - England (1643-1727) One of the most important figures in science. Most well known for his three laws of motion. His key contributions to fluid mechanics include: The second law: F=m.a. The concept of Newtonian viscosity in which stress and the rate of strain vary linearly. The reciprocity principle: the force applied upon a stationary object by a moving fluid is equal to the change in momentum of the fluid as it deflects around the front of the object. Relationship between the speed of waves at a liquid surface and the wavelength.
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7 During this period, significant work was done trying to mathematically describe the motion of fluids. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) derived Bernoulli’s equation. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) proposed the Euler equations, which describe conservation of momentum for an inviscid fluid, and conservation of mass. He also proposed the velocity potential theory. Claude Louis Marie Henry Navier (1785-1836) and George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) introduced viscous transport into the Euler equations, which resulted in the Navier-Stokes equation.
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