RAC Lecture 4 - 1 Lesson 4 Review of fundamental principles...

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Lesson 4 Review of fundamental principles – Thermodynamics : Part I
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1. Introduce and define important thermodynamic concepts such as thermodynamic system, path and point functions, thermodynamic process, cycle, heat, work etc. (Sections 4.2 and 4.3) 2. State the four fundamental laws of thermodynamics (Section 4.4) 3. Apply first law of thermodynamics to closed and open systems and develop relevant equations (Section 4.4) 4. Introduce and define thermodynamic properties such as internal energy and enthalpy (Section 4.4) 5. Discuss the importance of second law of thermodynamics and state Carnot theorems (Section 4.4) 6. Define and distinguish the differences between heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump (Section 4.4) 7. Obtain expressions for Carnot efficiency of heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump (Section 4.4) 8. State Clausius inequality and introduce the property ‘entropy’ (Section 4.4) At the end of the lesson the student should be able to: 1. Identify path function and point functions 2. Define heat and work 3. Apply first law of thermodynamics to open and closed systems 4. State second law of thermodynamics 5. Define heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump 6. Apply second law of thermodynamics to evaluate efficiencies of reversible cycles 7. State Clausius inequality and define entropy 8. Define reversible and irreversible processes 9. State the principle of increase of entropy 4.1. Introduction Refrigeration and air conditioning involves various processes such as compression, expansion, cooling, heating, humidification, de-humidification, air purification, air distribution etc. In all these processes, there is an exchange of mass, momentum and energy. All these exchanges are subject to certain fundamental laws. Hence to understand and analyse refrigeration and air conditioning systems, a basic knowledge of the laws of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer that govern these processes is essential. It is assumed that the reader has studied courses in engineering thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. This chapter reviews some of the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics pertinent to refrigeration and air-conditioning.
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Thermodynamics is the study of energy interactions between systems and the effect of these interactions on the system properties . Energy transfer between systems takes place in the form of heat and/or work . Thermodynamics deals with systems in equilibrium . A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter of fixed mass and identity upon which attention is focused for study. In simple terms, a system is whatever we want to study. A system could be as simple as a gas in a cylinder or as complex as a nuclear power plant. Everything external to the system is the surroundings . The system is separated from the surroundings by the system boundaries . Thermodynamic systems can be further classified into closed systems, open systems and isolated systems .
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2010 for the course ME N/A taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '10 term at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

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RAC Lecture 4 - 1 Lesson 4 Review of fundamental principles...

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