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Lesson
4
Review of fundamental
principles –
Thermodynamics : Part I
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1.
Introduce and define important thermodynamic concepts such as thermodynamic system,
path and point functions, thermodynamic process, cycle, heat, work etc.
(Sections 4.2
and 4.3)
2.
State the four fundamental laws of thermodynamics
(Section 4.4)
3.
Apply first law of thermodynamics to closed and open systems and develop relevant
equations
(Section 4.4)
4.
Introduce and define thermodynamic properties such as internal energy and enthalpy
(Section 4.4)
5.
Discuss the importance of second law of thermodynamics and state Carnot theorems
(Section 4.4)
6.
Define and distinguish the differences between heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump
(Section 4.4)
7.
Obtain expressions for Carnot efficiency of heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump
(Section 4.4)
8.
State Clausius inequality and introduce the property ‘entropy’
(Section 4.4)
At the end of the lesson the student should be able to:
1.
Identify path function and point functions
2.
Define heat and work
3.
Apply first law of thermodynamics to open and closed systems
4.
State second law of thermodynamics
5.
Define heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump
6.
Apply second law of thermodynamics to evaluate efficiencies of reversible cycles
7.
State Clausius inequality and define entropy
8.
Define reversible and irreversible processes
9.
State the principle of increase of entropy
4.1. Introduction
Refrigeration and air conditioning involves various processes such as compression,
expansion, cooling, heating, humidification, de-humidification, air purification, air distribution
etc. In all these processes, there is an exchange of mass, momentum and energy. All these
exchanges are subject to certain fundamental laws. Hence to understand and analyse
refrigeration and air conditioning systems, a basic knowledge of the laws of thermodynamics,
fluid mechanics and heat transfer that govern these processes is essential. It is assumed that the
reader has studied courses in engineering thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.
This chapter reviews some of the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics pertinent to
refrigeration and air-conditioning.
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