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# RAC Lecture 5 - 1 Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles...

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1 Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles – Thermodynamics : Part II 1

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2 .The specific objectives are to : 1. State principles of evaluating thermodynamic properties of pure substances using: a) Equations of State ( Section 5.2 ) b) Thermodynamic charts ( Section 5.2 ) c) Thermodynamic tables ( Section 5.2 ) 2. Derive expressions for heat and work transfer in important thermodynamic processes such as: a) Isochoric process ( Section 5.3 ) b) Isobaric process ( Section 5.3 ) c) Isothermal process ( Section 5.3 ) d) Isentropic process ( Section 5.3 ) e) Isenthalpic process etc. ( Section 5.3 ) At the end of the lesson the student should be able to: 1. Evaluate thermodynamic properties using equations of state, tables and charts 2. Identify various regimes on T-s and P-h charts 3. Estimate heat and work transferred in various thermodynamic processes 5.1. Thermodynamic relations There are some general thermodynamic relations, which are useful for determination of several thermodynamic properties from measured data on a few properties. The following relationships are generally used for the evaluation of entropy change. These are called T ds equations. They are obtained by applying first and second laws of thermodynamics first equation second equation T ds du p dv T ds T ds dh v dP T ds = + = (5.1) Two more fundamental thermodynamic relations can be obtained by defining two new properties called Gibbs and Helmholtz functions. 5.2. Evaluation of thermodynamic properties In order to perform thermodynamic calculations, one has to know various thermodynamic properties of the system. Properties such as internal energy, enthalpy and entropy cannot be measured directly . Thermodynamics gives mathematical relations using which one can obtain properties, which cannot be measured directly in terms of the measurable properties such as pressure, temperature, volume, specific heat etc. 2