ch_12 - Chapter 12 Solutions Why do certain substances...

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Chapter 12 Solutions Why do certain substances dissolve in water  while others do not?  Why do “likes dissolve  likes?”   Recall: A solution is a homogeneous mixture  of  2 or more substances.  Can be a solid, liquid  or a gas A homogeneous mixture is uniform throughout  (it has the same concentration throughout)
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Figure 12.434c
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A solution consists of the solvent  and one or  more solutes .
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NaCl dissolving in H 2 O
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Figure 12.438a
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Hydration/Solvent Cages
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Energetics of Solvation: Solvation forces overcome intermolecular  forces in solvent and solute 1. Enthalpy effects: Solute Separation (endothermic) Solvent Separation (endothermic) Solvation (exothermic) 2. Entropy effects: Randomness often drives dissolving  process
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Entire Dissolution Process
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Solute-Separation Step
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Solvent-Separation Step
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Solvation Step
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Energy  Diagram
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Figure 12.441c
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Figure 12.442a Energy diagram  for LiCl  dissolving in H 2 O
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Figure 12.442b
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Figure 12.444a
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Entropy effects Entropy: the tendency for a system to go  from a more ordered to a less ordered  state Dissolving a solid solute into a solvent  generally results in an increase in entropy  for the system
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Figure 12.446a
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