Reading for Liberalism1

Reading for Liberalism1 - International institutions Can...

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International institutions: Can interdependence work? Foreign Policy ; Washington; Spring 1998; Robert O Keohane; Abstract: Scholars still do not understand why some international institutions succeed while others fail, nor why most remain so patently undemocratic. International institutions are becoming more important in maintaining world order. To analyze world politics in the 1990s is to discuss international institutions: the rules that govern elements of world politics and the oranizations that help implement those rules. Should NATO expand? How can the United Nations Security Council assure UN inspectors access to sites where Iraq might be conducting banned weapons activity? Under what conditions should China be admitted to the World Trade Organization (wTo)? How many billions of dollars does the International Monetary Fund (IMF) need at its disposal to remain an effective "lender of last resort" for countries such as Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand that were threatened in 1997 with financial collapse? Will the tentative Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change be renegotiated, ratified, and implemented effectively? Can future United Nations peacekeeping practices-in contrast to the UN fiascoes in Bosnia and Somalia -be made more effective? These questions help illustrate the growing importance of international institutions for maintaining world order. Twelve years ago in these pages, Joseph Nye and I gave "two cheers for multilateralism," pointing out that even the administration of President Ronald Reagan, which took office ill-disposed toward international institutions, had grudgingly come to accept their value in achieving American purposes. Superpowers need general rules because they seek to influence events around the world. Even an unchallenged superpower such as the United States would be unable to achieve its goals through the bilateral exercise of influence: the costs of such massive "arm-twisting" would be too great. International institutions are increasingly important, but they are not always successful. Ineffective institutions such as the United Nations Industrial Development Organization or the Organization of African Unity exist alongside effectual ones such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the European Union. In recent years, we have gained insight into what makes some institutions more capable than others-how such institutions best promote cooperation among states and what mechanics of bargaining they use. But our knowledge is incomplete, and as the world moves toward new forms of global regulation and governance, the increasing impact of international institutions has raised new questions about how these institutions themselves are governed. THEORY AND REALITY, 1919-89
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course POLI SCI 5 taught by Professor Gurowitz,a during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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Reading for Liberalism1 - International institutions Can...

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