Chem PU Answers - 1 Answers Contents 1. Atomic Structure 2...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Answers Contents 1. Atomic Structure 2 2. Chemical Forces 3 3. Energy Changes 8 4. Free Energy and Entropy 12 5. Equilibrium 15 6. Gases and Kinetics 25 7. Chemical Models and Evidence 30 8. Periodic Table 31 9. Main Group Chemistry 34 10. Group 14 39 11. Transition Elements 41 12. Crystallography 46 13. Organic Chemistry: Preliminaries 49 14. Functional Group Level 51 15. Alcohol Level 56 16. Carbonyl Level 59 17. Addition and Elimination Reactions 62 18. Green Chemistry 65 19. Carboxylic Acid Level 67 20. Carbon Dioxide Level 71 21. Mechanisms 73 22. Aromatic Chemistry 76 23. Acidity & Basicity 79 24. Stereochemistry 81 25. Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis 83 26. Mass Spectrometry 86 27. Electronic Spectroscopy 88 28. Infra-red Spectroscopy 89 29. Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy 91 30. NMR of other spin Nuclei 93 CHEMISTRY Pre-U Answers to Exercises Dr. Michael A. Thompson 2 Pre-U Chemistry 1. Atomic Structure Answers 1.1 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D Answers 1.2 1. C 2. B 3. D Answers 1.3 1. C 2. D 3. D 4 . Electron shells Shell number 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th Subshells s s p s p d s p d f Orbitals 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 Maximum number of electrons 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 14 Total 2 8 18 32 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. D 11. B 3 Answers 2. Chemical Forces Answers 2.1 3. + Li Br Li Br Na O Na O Ca O Ca O K F K F + + + 2 xx xx x x x xx xx x x x xx xx x x xx xx x x 1+ 1+ 1+ 2+ 1 2 1 2 xx xx x x x xx xx x x x xx xx x x xx xx x x 2 4. BaS, Ca 3 P 2 , CsI and GaN 5. Binary ionic compound Formula Electronic configuration of the metals cation Electronic configuration of the non-metals anion Lithium sulfide Li 2 S 1s 2 or [He] [Ar] Potassium arsenide K 3 As [Ar] [Kr] Aluminium nitride AlN [Ne] [Ne] Sodium selenide Na 2 Se [Ne] [Kr] Barium chloride BaCl 2 [Xe] 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 or [Ar] 6. A single covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons found between two atoms. Each atom contributes one electron to the shared pair. A dative covalent bond is also a shared pair of electrons found between two atoms, but both electrons are donated by one of the atoms. Dative covalent bonds are also referred to as coordinate bonds. 7. H C N x x x x x O S O x x x x x x C O x x x x x x H O x x x x H O x x x x x x x x x Hydrogen cyanide Sulfur dioxide Carbonic acid Sulfur can expand its octet to accommodate more than eight electrons in its outer shell. 8. C 4 Pre-U Chemistry Answers 2.2 1. Two electrons would have to go into an antibonding molecular orbital. This is energetically unfavourable because the increase in energy of the antibonding orbital is greater than the decrease in energy of the bonding orbital. Helium molecules do not form because they would be at higher energy than the separate helium atoms and the forces of repulsion would be greater than the forces of attraction....
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Chem PU Answers - 1 Answers Contents 1. Atomic Structure 2...

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