40-Animal Form - Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form...

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Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
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Anatomy (“cut apart”) is the study of the biological form of an organism Physiology (“nature of” “words”) is the study of the biological functions an organism performs The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated
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Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the genome
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Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal’s shape, size, and environment Evolutionary convergence reflects different species’ adaptations to a similar environmental challenge Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape (a) Tuna (b) Penguin (c) Seal
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Exchange with the Environment An animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membranes A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan (examples include hydra and jellyfish) have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials
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Fig. 40-3 Exchange 0.15 mm a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity
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Fig. 40-4 .5 cm Nutrients Digestive system ining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue
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In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid ( extracellular—ECF or intercellular ) which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells. In blood, the ECF is called plasma . In the lymphatic system it is called lymph . A complex body plan helps an animal in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment
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All animals have at least one cell (“little room”) A cell is the smallest thing we can call living (has C-ME-GRO-AIM-HI characteristics) Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues (“woven”) that have different functions Tissues make up organs (“instrument”), which together make up organ systems (“organized whole”) Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
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Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Integumentary Skeletal Urinary Muscular Digestive Nervous Respiratory Endocrine Lymphatic Cardiovascular Reproductive Human Organism Level Organ Level Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Cellular Level
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