Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide - Chapter1Psychology: What is...

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Chapter 1 – Psychology: The Evolution of a Science  What is Psychology? Definition of Psychology It is the scientific study of mind and behavior o Mind refers to our private inner experience (perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings) o Behavior refers to observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals Major Philosophical issues: Free will vs. Determinism Free will is the power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by an agency such as fate or divine will Determinism is the view that all current and future events are causally necessitated by past events combined with the laws of nature o Causal (Nomoligcal) Future events are necessitated by past and present events combined with the laws of nature o Logical All propositions about that past, present or future are either true or false o Theological There is a higher power who determines all that humans will do, either by knowing their actions in advance or by decreeing their actions in advance o Biological All behavior, belief and desire by our genetic endowment Mind-brain problem: What is monism? What is dualism? Phineas Gage case: who was he? What happened to him? Importance of his case. Monism is any philosophical view which holds that there is unity in a given field of inquiry, where this is not to be expected. 3 kinds o Idealism monism holds that only the mind is real o Neutral monism holds that both the mental and physical can be reduced to some sort of third substance or energy
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o Physical monism holds that only the physical is real and the mental can be reduced to the physical Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter. It is how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior Phineas Gage (“American Crowbar Case”) o A railroad worker who had a large metal rod puncture and destroy both sides of his frontal lobes and survived o The effects were said to ne so profound that he was a completely different person o First case suggesting that damage to specific areas of the brain might affect personality and behavior Nature-nurture issue: What is this debate about? It is the interaction of genes and environmental influences that determine what humans do The debate is over the relative of an individuals innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits What psychologists do? Psychologists in teaching and research, service providers to individuals and service providers to organizations. Focus on: Biological psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalyst, clinical psychologists, cognitive psychologists, industrial/organizational, behaviorists. What degrees do they need?
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