Chapter 4_F10 - Organic compounds Chapter 4 Page 59 fig 4.2...

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Organic compounds Chapter 4 (pages 58 – 66) Page 59 fig 4.2 covered later
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The bonding versatility of carbon (a) Methane (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene) Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 Name and Comments
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Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation
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Fig. 4-5a (a) Length Ethane Propane
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Fig. 4-5b (b) Branching Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane)
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Fig. 4-5c (c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene
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Fig. 4-5d (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene
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Hydrocarbons
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(a) A fat molecule (b) Mammalian adipose cells 100 µm Fat droplets (stained red) Figure 4.6 A, B
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Isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
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Types of Isomers Structural Geometric Enantiomers
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Fig. 4-7a (a) Structural isomers 2-methyl butane Pentane Structural isomers: have different covalent arrangements of their atoms
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Fig. 4-7b (b) Geometric isomers cis isomer: The two Xs are on the same side. trans isomer: The two Xs are on opposite sides. Geometric isomers : same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements
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Fig. 4-7c (c) Enantiomers L isomer D isomer Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other
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Functional groups CH 3 OH HO O CH 3 CH 3 OH Estradiol Testosterone Female lion Male lion Figure 4.9
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The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life: Hydroxyl group Carbonyl group Carboxyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
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Fig. 4-10a
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