Chapter 5 p3_F10 - Proteins Proteins Chapter 5 An Overview...

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Proteins Proteins Chapter 5 Chapter 5 (pages 77 – 86) (pages 77 – 86)
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An Overview of Protein Functions FYI
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Fig. 5-UN1 Amino group Carboxyl group α carbon
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If the R group is not H: 2 optical isomers (mirror images) C C R H N H 3 + O - O C C R H NH 3 + O O - Mirror plane α carbon
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Remember: Proteins consist exclusively of L-amino acids
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Main chain vs Side Chain (R group) Zwitterion: predominant form at neutral pH
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Fig. 5-17a Nonpolar R Groups Glycine (Gly or G) Alanine (Ala or A) Valine (Val or V) Leucine (Leu or L) Isoleucine (Ile or I ) Methionine (Met or M) Phenylalanine (Phe or F) Tryptophan (Trp or W) Proline (Pro or P)
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Fig. 5-17b Polar R Groups Asparagine (Asn or N) Glutamine (Gln or Q) Serine (Ser or S) Threonine (Thr or T) Cysteine (Cys or C) Tyrosine (Tyr or Y)
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Fig. 5-17c Acidic Arginine (Arg or R) Histidine (His or H) Aspartic acid (Asp or D) Glutamic acid (Glu or E) Lysine (Lys or K) Basic Charged R groups
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20 standard amino acids found in peptides and proteins
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Amino acids interact through R groups Covalent bonding Non-covalent bonding 1) H-bonding 2) Ionic bonds 3) Hydrophobic interactions
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Covalent bonds
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Amino acids are connected head to tail NH 2 C N COOH O H 2 1 Dehydration -H 2 O NH 2 CO OH 1 N H 2 COOH 2
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Important concepts Draw the chemical structure of a generic amino acid at pH 7.2 (zwitterion)
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