Chapter 5_part 1_F10 - Chapter 5 Check out animated...

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Chapter 5
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Check out animated tutorial link in chapter 3 in the following text site: www.thelifewire.com
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Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms
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Four macromolecules in cells: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids Only three of the four macromolecules are polymers
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Synthesis of Polymers Condensation (Dehydration) reactions HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A Need Enzymes!! Need Energy!!
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Breakdown of polymers Hydrolysis HO 1 2 3 H HO H 1 2 3 4 H 2 O H HO Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Figure 5.2B
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What we will cover Carbohydrates Types, structures, function Lipids Types, structures, functions Proteins Amino acids, polypeptides, protein structure and function Nucleic acids DNA and RNA
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CARBOHYDRATES
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MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES
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The structure of glucose – C 6 H 12 O 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 MOLECULAR FORMULA (CH 2 O) n
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Monosaccharides Variations based on: A) No. of Carbons in the carbon skeleton B) Location of Carbonyl group C) Spatial arrangement of atoms eg. varying configurations of OH groups
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Heptoses – 7 carbon Hexoses – 6 carbon Pentoses – 5 carbon Tetroses – 4 carbon Trioses – 3 carbon A) No. of carbons in the C skeleton A) No. of carbons in the C skeleton
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B) Location of carbonyl group Aldoses (e.g., glucose) have an aldehyde group at one end. Ketoses (e.g., fructose) have a keto group, internal. Glucose Fructose
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C)Varying Configurations of Hydroxyl Groups Different configuration of hydroxyl groups Glucose Galactose
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Fig. 5-3a Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) Examples of Monosaccharides:
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Fig. 5-3b
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