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311C_F10_chap 8_part2 - Fig 8-8 ATP(adenosine triphosphate...

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Fig. 8-8 Phosphate groups Ribose Adenine ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Is the cell’s energy shuttle Provides energy for cellular functions
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Energy is released from ATP When the terminal phosphate bond is broken Figure 8.9 P Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) H 2 O + Energy Inorganic phosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P P P P i 7.3 kcal
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Energy coupling Cells use energy from an exergonic process to drive an endergonic process A) Chemical work B) Transport work C) Mechanical work
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Fig. 8-10 (b) Coupled with ATP hydrolysis, an exergonic reaction Ammonia displaces the phosphate group, forming glutamine. (a) Endergonic reaction (c) Overall free-energy change P P Glu NH 3 NH 2 Glu i Glu ADP + P ATP + + Glu ATP phosphorylates glutamic acid, making the amino acid less stable. Glu NH 3 NH 2 Glu + Glutamic acid Glutamine Ammonia G = +3.4 kcal/mol + 2 1 Chemical work
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Transport and Mechanical work
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Fig. 8-11 (b) Mechanical work: ATP binds noncovalently to motor proteins, then is hydrolyzed Membrane protein P i ADP + P Solute Solute transported P i Vesicle Cytoskeletal track Motor protein Protein moved (a) Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins ATP ATP
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Fig. 8-12 P i ADP + Energy from catabolism (exergonic, energy-releasing processes) Energy for cellular work (endergonic, energy-consuming processes) ATP + H 2 O Regeneration of ATP The ATP cycle
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The hydrolysis Is an example of a chemical reaction Figure 8.13 H 2 O H H H H HO OH OH OH O O O O O H H H H H H H CH 2 OH CH 2 OH OH CH 2 OH Sucrase HO HO OH OH CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH H O Sucrose Glucose Fructose C 12 H
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