311C_F10_Chapter 8 part 1

311C_F10_Chapter 8 part 1 - An introduction to Metabolism...

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An introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 – part 1 Chapter 55 (pages 1223-24, 1231-33)
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Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway has many steps Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 A B C D Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Reaction 3 Starting molecule Product
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Catabolic Pathways Pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Cellular respiration C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 +6H 2 0 + ENERGY
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Anabolic Pathways Pathways that consume energy to build larger, complicated molecules from simpler ones Biosynthetic pathways Polymerization Photosynthesis 6CO 2 +6H 2 0 + light C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6O 2
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Kinetic energy Is the energy associated with motion of molecules or objects Kinetic energy of molecular motion Potential energy stored energy Due to position, location or arrangement Includes chemical energy stored in molecular structure Potential energy in foods is chemical energy Electron in outer shell - more potential energy Forms of Energy
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Energy can be converted from one form to another On the platform, a diver has more potential energy. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. Climbing up converts kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy . In the water, a diver has less potential energy. http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/media.htm
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Thermodynamics Study of energy transformations System – matter within defined region of space Closed system Open system Surroundings- matter in the rest of the universe
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The First Law of Thermodynamics Total energy of a system and its surroundings is constant
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The Second Law of Thermodynamics During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat According to the second law of thermodynamics : Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe
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Entropy: is a measure of randomness (denoted as S, where delta denotes change i.e. condition at the time observed minus initial condition)
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( ) 0 system surroundings S S + ∆
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