311C_F10_Chapter 8 part 1

311C_F10_Chapter 8 part 1 - An introduction to Metabolism...

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Unformatted text preview: An introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 – part 1 Chapter 55 (pages 1223-24, 1231-33) Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways • A metabolic pathway has many steps Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 A B C D Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Reaction 3 Starting molecule Product Catabolic Pathways • Pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds • Cellular respiration • C 6 H 12 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 +6H 2 0 + ENERGY Anabolic Pathways • Pathways that consume energy to build larger, complicated molecules from simpler ones • Biosynthetic pathways • Polymerization • Photosynthesis 6CO 2 +6H 2 0 + light → C 6 H 12 6 + 6O 2 • Kinetic energy – Is the energy associated with motion of molecules or objects – Kinetic energy of molecular motion • Potential energy – stored energy – Due to position, location or arrangement – Includes chemical energy stored in molecular structure – Potential energy in foods is chemical energy – Electron in outer shell - more potential energy Forms of Energy • Energy can be converted from one form to another On the platform, a diver has more potential energy. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. Climbing up converts kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy . In the water, a diver has less potential energy. http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/media.htm Thermodynamics • Study of energy transformations • System – matter within defined region of space – Closed system – Open system • Surroundings- matter in the rest of the universe The First Law of Thermodynamics Total energy of a system and its surroundings is constant The Second Law of Thermodynamics • During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat • According to the second law of thermodynamics : – Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe • Entropy: is a measure of randomness (denoted as ∆ S, where delta denotes change i.e. condition at the time observed minus initial condition) ( ) system surroundings S S ∆ + ∆ •...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2010 for the course BIO 311 C taught by Professor Mcclelland during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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311C_F10_Chapter 8 part 1 - An introduction to Metabolism...

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