anatomy HW2

anatomy HW2 - Maggie Skyler Human Anatomy HW#2 4-7 Due...

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M a g g i e S k y l e r H u m a n A n a t o m y H W # 2 4 - 7 D u e T u e s d a y O c t o b e r 2 , 2 0 1 0 4. Joints This is considered a free movable joint also known as diarthrosis in singular form or diarthroses when talking about more than one. The ends of the opposing joints are covered with hyaline cartilage, the articular cartilage, and are separated by what is known as a joint cavity. Outer layer contains ligaments that hold it together. These are all separated by a space that is known as the joint cavity. The components of the joints are contained in a dense fibrous joint capsule. The outer layer of this capsule has ligaments that hold the bones together. The inner layer contains the synovial membrane and that secretes synovial fluid into the joint to keep it lubricated. Just
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like oil keeps an engine lubricated. “This is created by the synovial membrane”. (Agur, Dalley, and Moore 25) Because they contain this synovial membrane they are called synovial joints. An example of a “free movable joint is the glenohumeral (shoulder joint)”. (Agur, Dalley, and Moore 25) “The six major types of synovial joints are classified according to the shape of the articulating surfaces and/or the type of movement they permit.” These are ball and socket, hinge, plane, saddle, condyloid, and pivot joints. Joint Type Movement at joint Examples Structure Hinge Flexion/Extension Elbow/Knee Hinge joint Pivot Rotation of one bone around another Top of the neck (atlas and axis bones) Pivot Joint
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Ball and Socket Flexion/Extension/Adductio n/ Abduction/Internal & External Rotation Shoulder/Hip Ball and socket joint Saddle Flexion/Extension/Adductio n/ Abduction/Circumduction CMC joint of the thumb Saddle joint Condyloid Flexion/Extension/Adductio n/ Abduction/Circumduction Wrist/MCP & MTP joints Condyloid joint Plane Plane/Gliding movements Intercarpal joints Plane/Gliding joint
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Fibrous Joint These are connected by fibrous tissue. The amount the joints move in most cases depends on the length of the fibrous tissue connecting the articulating bones. The sutures on the cranium are perfect examples of these. They are close together and connect like a puzzle piece on a wavy or overlapping line. Syndesmosis fibrous joint connects bones with fibrous tissue which is a ligament or a bone. The forearm contains an interosseous membrane that connects the radius and the ulna as an example of this joint. A gomphosis or socket is called a dentoalveolar syndesmosis where a peg fits into a socket like the tooth and the jaw. These types of joints are considered immovable. ( " F i b r o u s J o i n t " ) Cartilaginous Articulations
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“United by hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage” (Agur, Dalley, and Moore 26). There are primary and secondary cartilaginous articulation
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anatomy HW2 - Maggie Skyler Human Anatomy HW#2 4-7 Due...

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