Wiens-lecture 7-9April_v2

Wiens-lecture 7-9April_v2 - Todays Lecture Introduction to...

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Today’s Lecture • Introduction to animals • Introduction to animal phylogeny
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How are animals different from: bacteria?
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How are animals different from: bacteria? • Animals are multi-cellular
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How are animals different from: plants?
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How are animals different from: plants? • All animals are heterotrophs (vs. autotrophs) • Most animals can move, at least at some point during their life cycle • Movement is made possible by muscle tissue
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How are animals different from: fungi?
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How are animals different from: fungi? • Both animals and fungi are heterotrophs • Animals ingest their food
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What supports monophyly of animals? • Phylogeny baed on RNA and DNA sequences • Unique junctions between cells (tight junctions, gap junctions) • Share proteins of the extracellular matrix (collagen, proteoglycans)
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Phylogeny of animals Today Monday Wednesday Friday April 19–28
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Phylogeny of animals
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Sponges • Primitive paraphyletic group of animals, consists of 3 groups that share some traits but are not closely related • About 8,000 species, mostly marine • No organs; no distinct cell layers • Body plan is not symmetrical; look like plants • No nervous system or muscles
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Sponges • Sponges are loose collection of cells held together by an “extracellar matrix” of collagen and other proteins • Have no skeleton but have hard skeletal elements called “spicules” • Two clades (“glass sponges” and “demosponges”) have spicules made of silicon dioxide (also makes up sand, glass) • Third clade (calcareous sponges) has spicules of calcium carbonate (used in shells)
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Sponges • Have water canal system used for filter feeding; water enters sponge through pores; choanocytes then capture food particles; water then passes out • Choanocytes have flagellum that move and create water currents; have “collar” that catches prey
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Phylogeny of animals Clade above sponges is called Eumetazoa
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Synapomorphies of Eumetazoa • Radial symmetry (vs. not symmetric) • Two cell layers (vs. none); ectoderm and endoderm
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Wiens-lecture 7-9April_v2 - Todays Lecture Introduction to...

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