Wiens-lecture 7-9April_v2

Wiens-lecture 7-9April_v2 - Todays Lecture Introduction to...

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Today’s Lecture Introduction to animals Introduction to animal phylogeny
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How are animals different from: bacteria?
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How are animals different from: bacteria? Animals are multi-cellular
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How are animals different from: plants?
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How are animals different from: plants? All animals are heterotrophs (vs. autotrophs) Most animals can move, at least at some point during their life cycle Movement is made possible by muscle tissue
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How are animals different from: fungi?
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How are animals different from: fungi? Both animals and fungi are heterotrophs Animals ingest their food
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What supports monophyly of animals? Phylogeny baed on RNA and DNA sequences Unique junctions between cells (tight junctions, gap junctions) Share proteins of the extracellular matrix (collagen, proteoglycans)
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Phylogeny of animals Today Monday Wednesday Friday April 19–28
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Phylogeny of animals
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Sponges Primitive paraphyletic group of animals, consists of 3 groups that share some traits but are not closely related About 8,000 species, mostly marine No organs; no distinct cell layers Body plan is not symmetrical; look like plants No nervous system or muscles
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Sponges Sponges are loose collection of cells held together by an “extracellar matrix” of collagen and other proteins Have no skeleton but have hard skeletal elements called “spicules” Two clades (“glass sponges” and “demosponges”) have spicules made of silicon dioxide (also makes up sand, glass) Third clade (calcareous sponges) has spicules of calcium carbonate (used in shells)
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Sponges Have water canal system used for filter feeding; water enters sponge through pores; choanocytes then capture food particles; water then passes out Choanocytes have flagellum that move and create water currents; have “collar” that catches prey
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Phylogeny of animals Clade above sponges is called Eumetazoa
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Synapomorphies of Eumetazoa Radial symmetry (vs. not symmetric) Two cell layers (vs. none); ectoderm and endoderm
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