MCE 230_F10_ lec_13 - types of atoms is less than 15...

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MCE 230 Materials Science Fall 2010 Lecture - 13
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Imperfections in Solids
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Impurities in Solids Pure material consists of only one type of atoms It is very difficult to produce 100% pure material crystals solid contains vacancies, and it is not possible to have a vacancy free material Impurities are atoms which are different than the original material atoms Alloying: intentionally adding impurity atoms to enhance certain properties of the metal
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Solid Solutions When solute atoms are added to solvent “host” atoms, and the crystal structure is maintained. Factors affecting the formation of solid solutions: 1. Atomic size factor: difference between atomic radii of the two
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Unformatted text preview: types of atoms is less than +- 15%. Otherwise there will be lattice distortions and new phase will form. 2. Crystal Structure: both atom types must have the same crystal structure 3. Electronegativity: the more electropositive one of them and the more electronegative the other one, the greater the chance to form metallic compound rather than solid solution 4. Valences: other factors being equal, a metal will have more tendency to dissolve another metal with higher valency Composition (concentration)  Weight percentage ( where m is the weight or mass of element)  Atom percentage (where m’ is mass (grams) and A is the atomic weight) Composition Conversions...
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