Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Tissue- groups of cells with similar structure...

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Tissue- groups of cells with similar structure specialized to perform specific functions o Classified based on structure and function Epithelial (covers surfaces, lines, cavities, and forms glands), connective (supports and forms framework of all parts of body), muscle (contracts and produces movement), nervous (conducts nerve impulses) Epithelial o Protective covering for the body, main tissue for skin’s outer layer, forms membranes and lining o Avascular- not associated with blood vessels o Regenerates easily o Forms membranes, ducts, and the lining of body cavities and hollow organs o Traps foreign particles via mucus secreting (goblet) cells and cilia Epithelium of internal body surfaces- endothelium o Cells can be arranged in a single layer (simple), or multilayered (stratified) o Squamous: flat and irregular, Cuboidal: square, Columnar: long and narrow o Transitional epithelium occurs when for example the lining needs to be stretched o Repairs itself quickly o Classified by cell shape, number, and arrangement of cell layers Simple Squamous : thinnest tissue of the body Covers organs, lines blood vessels, lymph vessels, body cavities, and lungs Forms membranes Allows transport across membranes Simple Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelium Cuboidal is common in glands and ducts Forms walls of kidneys and covers ovaries Columnar lines digestive tract
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o Secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients with microvilli o Often include goblet cells (secrete mucus named for shape) Pseudo-stratified Columnar Epithelium Major tissue in respiratory and reproductive tracts May be ciliated or non-ciliated Functions: secretion and movement of mucus in lungs, movement of ovum from ovaries to uterus Stratified Epithelium Squamous is designed to protect the underlying layers where friction is common Cuboidal lines lumen of mammary glands, sweat & salivary glands, pancreas Columnar lines part of male urethra and pharynx Transitional wrinkled designed for distensibility Glandular epithelium: Endocrine (no ducts--hormones) vs. exocrine (ducts)
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Classification of exocrine glands o Classification is by method of secretion o Merocrine/eccrine Exocytosis (like salivary gland) o Apocrine Lose portions of cell membrane (mammary glands) o Holocrine Release entire cells (sebaceous gland) Connective tissue o Most abundant and widely distributed tissues o Supporting fabric of all body parts o Blood supply: from very well vascularized to avascular o Has large amounts of extracellular matrix made of protein fibers o Function: binds body tissues together, supports, protects and serves as framework, stores fat, produces blood cells, provides protection against
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Chapter 4 - Tissue- groups of cells with similar structure...

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