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Unformatted text preview: (Claver Carroll/Age Fotostock America, Inc.) C H A P T E R 1 1 C O N C E P T S The combination of good nutrition and regular exercise works together to promote fitness. Activity requires ATP generated from carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet and body stores. The ability of the heart and lungs to provide oxygen to tissues affects which nutrients can be used to produce ATP and how much is produced. Physically active individuals need extra energy to fuel their activity but the recommended proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein are the same as for the general population. Exercise increases the amount of water needed to transport nutrients, eliminate wastes, and cool the body. Appropriate food choices before, during, and after competition can help optimize athletic performance. Performance-enhancing (ergogenic) supplements are popular among athletes; before they are used, the risks should be weighed against the benefits. How much exercise is enough? Does exercise increase protein needs? Is it better to drink water or a sports drink? Can dietary supplements enhance athletic performance? J u s t A T a s t e CNN Headline News A Few Extra Steps a Day, May Keep Extra Pounds Away By Kat Carney Friday, Apr. 16, 2004Remember the phrase, Walk a mile in my shoes? Unfortunately, some Americans arent walking a mile in anyones shoes, and a mile, you may be interested to know is just over 2,000 steps for the average person. Coincidentally, 2,000 steps is the goal of America On the Move, a national walking program aimed at slowing down the countrys rising obesity problem. You may be surprised to find out that most people dont walk as much as they think they do. In fact, they only average between 3,000 and 6,000 steps a day, which is far short of a fitness goal of 10,000 steps. But the America On the Move program says by adding just 2,000 additional steps to our daily routines or, by eating 100 fewer calories daily, most of us will stop gaining weight. To read this entire article go to www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/04/16/ walking/. 363 11 Nutrition, Fitness, and Physical Activity Exercise Improves Fitness and Health Regular Exercise Causes Changes That Increase Fitness Exercise Reduces the Risk of Chronic Disease Everyone Should Get an Hour of Exercise Daily Exercise Should Include Aerobic Activities, Stretching, and Strength Training Children Should Also Get an Hour of Age-Appropriate Exercise It Is Never Too Late to Start an Exercise Program Exercise Requires the Right Fuels from Food and Body Stores The Source of ATP Depends on How Long You Have Been Exercising Whether an Activity Is Aerobic Depends How Intense It Is Exercise Training Allows You to Perform More Intense Activity without Fatigue Good Nutrition Is Essential for Optimal Performance Athletes Have Higher Energy Needs The Right Mix of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Fuels Exercise Most Diets with Enough Energy Also Meet Vitamin and Mineral Needs Some Nutritional Problems Are More Common...
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