sci241_week7_reading1 - (Henrik Sorensen/Photonica CHAPTER...

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(Henrik Sorensen/Photonica) C H A P T E R 1 2 C O N C E P T S Over the 40 weeks of pregnancy, a single cell develops into a fully formed child and the pregnant woman’s body undergoes many changes to provide for the growing fetus. Energy, protein, water, vitamins, and minerals needs increase during pregnancy. The developing child is vulnerable to nutrient imbalances and toxins. High blood glucose or high blood pressure during pregnancy put mother and child at risk. Nutritional status, income, and age affect the risks to mother and child during pregnancy. Nutrient needs are even greater during lactation than pregnancy. A newborn infant’s energy and protein needs are higher per unit of body weight than at any other time of life. Breast-feeding is the ideal way to nourish most infants. Infants’ growth rates are the best measure of the adequacy of their diets. After 4 to 6 months of age, solid foods can gradually be introduced into the infant’s diet. Should overweight women gain weight during pregnancy? Is a pregnant woman really eating for two? Do pregnant women need vitamin and mineral supplements? Is breast-feeding the best option for all newborn infants and their mothers? J u s t A T a s t e
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USA Today Study: Pregnant Women Eating Too Much Fish By Elizabeth Weise Apr. 7, 2004—Of the 4 million babies born in the USA in 2000, more than 300,000 of them—and as many as 600,000—may have been exposed to “unacceptable” levels of methyl mercury because their mothers ate a diet rich in fish, a study finds. The new study, by researchers at the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances at the Environmental Protection Agency, repeats a warning by numerous studies that the neurotoxin is particularly dangerous for growing fetuses. Exposure to even low levels of mercury in utero can cause developmental problems and difficulties with visual and motor integration. To read the entire article, go to 2004-04-07-mercury-usat_x.htm. 405 12 Nutrition, Pregnancy, and Infants Babies Begin as a Single Cell In the First 8 Weeks All Organs Begin to Form Between the 9th and the 40th Week, the Fetus Grows and Organs Mature A Woman’s Body Undergoes Many Changes During Pregnancy Adequate Weight Gain during Pregnancy Is Essential for Mother and Child Most Pregnant Women Don’t Need to Give Up Their Regular Routines Some Physiological Changes of Pregnancy Have Uncomfortable Side Effects Diet During Pregnancy Affects Mother and Child Pregnant Women Have Increased Calorie, Protein, and Fluid Needs The Need for Many Vitamins and Minerals Is Increased during Pregnancy The Developing Child Is Vulnerable to Poor Nutrition and Damaging Substances Complications During Pregnancy Put Mother and Baby at Risk Gestational Diabetes Makes Delivery Difficult for Mother and Child Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Can Be Life-Threatening Nutrition, Income, and Age Can Affect Pregnancy Outcome Nutritional Health Is Important for Conception and Pregnancy Outcome
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