2010-09-29_ Matthews_1 - DrugTreatmentofInfectious...

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Drug Treatment of Infectious Diseases (ID) Anti bacterial, Anti viral Agents Jason Matthews Jason.matthews@utoronto.ca MSB rm. 4336
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Lecture Unit Overview Anti-bacterial Anti-fungal Anti-viral Influenza HIV Anti-Parasitic infections Chapters 49-53, 55 7 th Edition
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What are infectious agents? Organism that can cause an infection Parasite Fungus Bacteria Virus Prions
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Antibiotics : Substances produced by microorganisms to suppress the growth of other microorganisms. Antimicrobial agents : Drugs that are synthesized in the laboratory as well as those naturally produced by microorganisms.
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Development of antimicrobial therapy Early 17 th century – first successful use of antimicrobial agent involving an extract from cinchona bark to treat malaria 1909 - Paul Ehrlich’s quest for the magic bullet that binds specifically to parasitic organisms. Used arsenic derivative to treat syphillis. He also suggested targeted therapy “Antimicrobial drugs would be most useful if the sites were not present in humans”. 1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin – published in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology (1929) 1935 - discovery of the predecessors of sulfonamides 1940 - Florey and Chain first to clinically use penicillin
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Mechanisms of Action are Selective Penicillin (from mold) discovered in 1928 was the first clinically useful antibiotic and initiated the antibiotic era Natural, semi synthetic and synthetic derivatives used in ID treatment For successful treatment drugs mechanism of action needs to be selective for the infectious agent over the host Selective Toxicity
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Antimicrobial sites of action on microorganisms
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Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Bacteriostatic – microorganisms are prevented from growing Bactericidal – microorganisms are killed CFU = Colony forming units Bacteriostatic works together with the immune system Bactericidal required for protected areas, i.e. the cerebrospinal fluid And when host immune system is compromised
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Overview – Lecture 1 agents that disrupt cell wall Penicillins Cephalosporins generations monobactams carbapenems beta-lactamase inhibitors vancomycin anti-microbial resistance Cell membrane/antifungal infections
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Agents that Act on the Cell Wall Antimicrobial All living cells have membranes bacteria have a rigid outer cell wall Maintain osmotic gradient, shape Gram positive Gram negative Peptidoglycan(s) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Bacillus, Listeria, Staphylococcus, E.coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Clostridium Morazella, Helicobacter,Neisseria
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Schematic of Gram Positive/Negative Bacteria 90% peptidoglycan cell wall 5-20% peptidoglycan cell wall LPS and inter-membrane space
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Inhibitors of Microbial Cell Wall Synthesis Penicillins, Cephalosporins , Monobactams, Carbapenems Cell wall
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course PHAMACOLOG pcl470 taught by Professor Arnot during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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2010-09-29_ Matthews_1 - DrugTreatmentofInfectious...

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