ACTA Gingko_2009 - Research paper Acta Neurobiol Exp 2009...

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Research paper Acta Neurobiol Exp 2009, 69: 217–231 © 2009 by Polish Neuroscience Society - PTBUN, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology INTRODUCTION The healing ability of Ginkgo biloba has been reported for thousands of years. At present it is one of the most extensively researched medicinal plants in the world, used by medical professionals to aid the treat- ment of problems typically associated with aging, such as poor circulation, mental confusion and memory loss (Gertz and Kiefer 2004). The most important constitu- ents of the standardized extracts of dried leaves of Ginkgo biloba are flavone glycosides (quercetin, kae- mpferol, isorhamnetin) and terpene lactones (gink- golides and bilobalide) (O’Reilly 1993, Mahadevan and Park 2008, Xie et al. 2008). Numerous studies have shown that standardized extract Ginkgo biloba has significant influences on neurotransmitter receptors of the central nervous sys- tem and can prevent age-related memory impairment (Huang SH et al. 2004, DeFeudis and Drieu 2000, Hadjiivanova and Petkov 2002, Ivic et al. 2003). Various beneficial effects of EGb 761 have been described in vigilance disturbances (Gessner et al. 1985) and memory and cognitive problems associated with ageing and senility (Warburton 1993, Kennedy et al. 2000, Nathan 2000, Keltner et al. 2001, Birks et al. 2002, Le Bars et al. 2002, Le Bars 2003, Muller and Chatterjee 2003, van Dongen et al. 2003, Elsabagh et al. 2005a,b). While the mechanism underlying the neuroprotec- tive benefits of EGb 761 has remained unclear, the attempts at explanation of its neuroprotective activity proposed its antioxidant properties (Wei et al. 2000, Pharmacological and biochemical effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on learning, memory consolidation and motor activity in old rats Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Agnieszka Piechal, Ilona Joniec, Justyna Pyrzanowska, and Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz* Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, *Email: [email protected] Effect of administration of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb 761) on learning, memory and exploratory behavior was estimated in water maze and hole-board tests. Rats (18-month old) received for three months EGb 761 at doses: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w. per day. After completion of the behavioral experiment, concentrations of neurotransmitters were estimated in selected brain regions. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the control. The increased level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the hippocampus and 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolite) in the prefrontal cortex correlated positively with the retention of spatial memory. Positive correlation between platform crossings in SE during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest improvement of spatial memory. Long-term administration of Ginkgo biloba extract can improve spatial memory and motivation with significant changes in the content and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions.
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