Alcohol 2010 - ALCOHOL Dr Larry Grupp Department of...

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ALCOHOL Dr. Larry Grupp Department of Pharmacology University of Toronto
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Gupta pill
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Learning Points 1. Pharmacokinetics Absorption Distribution Metabolism 2. Pharmacodynamics 3. Alcohol poisoning and its treatment 4. Actions on the body Periphery Central Receptors Neurotransmitters 5. Alcoholism 6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
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Alcohol can be metabolized at 15-20 mg/100ml/h
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ABSORPTION By simple diffusion From Stomach and intestine But latter is faster due to greater surface area Food in stomach delays gastric emptying , therefore… absorption is slowed Depends on concentration Once in blood stream is carried to liver and then to the rest of the systemic circulation
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DISTRIBUTION Equilibrates in total body water Gender differences Women have more cutaneous fat than men Little alcohol enters fat because of poor blood supply Men have a greater volume of distribution than women Therefore women’s BAL tends to be higher for the same amount of alcohol . htm
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METABOLISM Occurs in the liver >90% is oxidized in the liver Follows ZERO-order kinetics Independent of time and concentration of drug Alcohol DH saturates at low blood alcohol concentrations
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METABOLISM alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dehydrogenase Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetate Alcohol dehydrogenase has also been found in the GI tract, epithelium, lung and brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase is the rate limiting step ( What happens if you lack acetaldehyde dehydrogenase?)
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METABOLISM Accumulation of acetaldehyde is associated with Headache nausea vomiting Genetic variations in aldehye dehydrogenase ……. Flushing Disulfiram inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase
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PHARMACODYNAMICS BAC MG/ 100ML Effects 20-30 Mood elevation. Slight muscle relaxation. 50-60 Relaxation and Warmth. Increased reaction time. Decreased fine muscle coordination. 80-90 Impaired balance, speech, vision, hearing, muscle coordination. Euphoria. 140- 150 Gross impairment of physical and mental control.
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