Alcohol 2010 - ALCOHOL Dr. Larry Grupp Department of...

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Unformatted text preview: ALCOHOL Dr. Larry Grupp Department of Pharmacology University of Toronto Gupta pill Learning Points 1. Pharmacokinetics Absorption Distribution Metabolism 2. Pharmacodynamics 3. Alcohol poisoning and its treatment 4. Actions on the body Periphery Central Receptors Neurotransmitters 5. Alcoholism 6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol can be metabolized at 15-20 mg/100ml/h ABSORPTION By simple diffusion From Stomach and intestine But latter is faster due to greater surface area Food in stomach delays gastric emptying , therefore absorption is slowed Depends on concentration Once in blood stream is carried to liver and then to the rest of the systemic circulation DISTRIBUTION Equilibrates in total body water Gender differences Women have more cutaneous fat than men Little alcohol enters fat because of poor blood supply Men have a greater volume of distribution than women Therefore womens BAL tends to be higher for the same amount of alcohol http://academic.hws.edu/alcohol/bd295/Metab2000/sld001. htm METABOLISM Occurs in the liver >90% is oxidized in the liver Follows ZERO-order kinetics Independent of time and concentration of drug Alcohol DH saturates at low blood alcohol concentrations METABOLISM alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dehydrogenase Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetate Alcohol dehydrogenase has also been found in the GI tract, epithelium, lung and brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase is the rate limiting step ( What happens if you lack acetaldehyde dehydrogenase?) METABOLISM Accumulation of acetaldehyde is associated with Headache nausea vomiting Genetic variations in aldehye dehydrogenase . Flushing Disulfiram inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase www.manisses.com/ www.sertudine.it PHARMACODYNAMICS BAC MG/ 100ML Effects 20-30 Mood elevation. Slight muscle relaxation. 50-60 Relaxation and Warmth. Increased reaction time. Decreased fine muscle coordination. 80-90 Impaired balance, speech, vision, hearing, muscle coordination. Euphoria....
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Alcohol 2010 - ALCOHOL Dr. Larry Grupp Department of...

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