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Lecture 2a - Lecture 2 overview degradation/damage of DNA...

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Lecture 2 overview degradation/damage of DNA bases s po ntane o us  de purinatio n s po ntane o us  de am inatio n o xidatio n thro ug h ‘natural’ pro c e s s e s o xidatio n by drug s  and c he m ic als alkylatio n thro ug h ‘natural’ pro c e s s e s alkylatio n by drug s  and c he m ic als Direct repair of base damage Base excision repair
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Spontaneous decomposition: DNA vs. RNA all bio lo g ic al m ac ro m o le c ule s  s po ntane o us ly de c o m po s e nuc le ic  ac ids  s po ntane o us ly de c o m po s e  in s o lutio n RNA is more vulnerable than DNA to decomposition   be c aus e  o f the  pre s e nc e  o f 2’-hydro xyl g ro up  o f ribo s e :  m ake s  the  pho s pho die s te r bo nds  o f RNA m o le c ule s  ve ry  s us c e ptible  to  hydro lys is , e s pe c ially in the  pre s e nc e  o f  divale nt c atio ns  (C a 2+ , Mg 2+ ) hence, RNA is adequate typically for ‘short-term storage’ of genetic  information e.g. viruses that use RNA as a ‘genome’, this carrier is  short-lived and mutation-prone 
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Spontaneous decomposition of DNA vs. RNA loss of 2’-OH group presence of 2’OH group phosphodiester bond more stable phosphodiester bond less stable
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Spontaneous decomposition of DNA DNA: ribo s e  s ug ar m o ie ty is  re duc e d to  
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