Lecture 7 to post [Compatibility Mode]

Lecture 7 to post [Compatibility Mode] - Lecture Lecture 7...

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ecture 7 overview Lecture 7 overview he cell cycle The cell cycle • cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) yclin dependent kinase inhibitors cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors • The concept of checkpoints ell cycle checkpoints • cell cycle checkpoints • drugs and agents that impact cell cycle ow do we study checkpoints in the cell cycle • How do we study checkpoints in the cell cycle
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hat is the cell cycle What is the cell cycle • process of cell reproduction that entails the plic ti n f DNA f ll d b replication of DNA followed by division of the nucleus and partitioning of the cytoplasm to yield two daughter cells •s e quential and cyclical routine • stages are well-defined • overall conservation in eukaryotes •m a s ter regulators are conserved from yeast to human
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he Essential Cell cycle The Essential Cell cycle •t w o essential components: – S and M phases (Synthesis and Mitosis) (y ) Cells in early embryos: proceed through continuous cycles of DNA replication nd nuclear division (mitosis) at great speed and nuclear division (mitosis) at great speed – DNA replication starts as soon as mitosis ends (takes ½ hour for completion of one round of cell division)
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ontrol of cell cycle Control of cell cycle • Later on in embryogenesis – 1 decisions by a cell to undergo division are influenced by diverse metabolic, stress nd environmental cues G1 and environmental cues influence when a cell should undergo DNA replication and mitosis n additional phase (gap phase) called G1 phase occurs G2 An additional phase (gap phase) called G1 phase occurs between mitosis and DNA synthesis • Another gap called G2 phase occurs between S and M • G1 is period when signals intervene to influence the cell’s decision as to whether or not to enter S phase • G2 is period when signals intervene to influence decision to enter M phase ne phase outside of the cell cycle : G One phase outside of the cell cycle : G 0
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Control of cell cycle progression: Cyclin-dependent kinases • To enter S phase or M phase, cell must activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) • CDKs are protein kinases that require binding to nother protein known as a yclin become another protein known as a cyclin to become catalytically active • Only a single CDK catalytic subunit (CDK1 or cdc2) in wer eukaryotes e g r budding yeast lower eukaryotes e.g. S. cerevisiae or budding yeast • Multiple Cdk kinases with stage transition-specific roles in multicellular eukaryotes • Activity and substrate specificity are regulated by their association with cyclins, proteins levels oscillate with specific stages of the cell cycle
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Lecture 7 to post [Compatibility Mode] - Lecture Lecture 7...

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