Lecture 7 to post [Compatibility Mode]

Lecture 7 to post [Compatibility Mode] - Lecture Lecture 7...

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Lecture 7 overview The cell cycle cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors The concept of checkpoints cell cycle checkpoints drugs and agents that impact cell cycle How do we study checkpoints in the cell cycle
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What is the cell cycle process of cell reproduction that entails the plic ti n f DNA f ll d b replication of DNA followed by division of the nucleus and partitioning of the cytoplasm to yield two daughter ll cells sequential and cyclical routine stages are well-defined overall conservation in eukaryotes t l t d f t t h master regulators are conserved from yeast to human
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The Essential Cell cycle i l two essential components: S and M phases (Synthesis and Mitosis) Cells in early embryos: proceed through continuous cycles of DNA replication and nuclear division (mitosis) at great speed – DNA replication starts as soon as mitosis ends (takes ½ hour for completion of one round of cell division)
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Control of cell cycle Later on in embryogenesis – d i i b ll d G1 decisions by a cell to undergo division are influenced by diverse metabolic, stress and environmental cues influence when a cell should undergo DNA replication and mitosis An additional phase (gap phase) called G1 phase occurs G2 between mitosis and DNA synthesis Another gap called G2 phase occurs between S and M G1 is period when signals intervene to influence the cell’s d i i t h th t t t S h decision as to whether or not to enter S phase G2 is period when signals intervene to influence decision to enter M phase One phase outside of the cell cycle : G 0
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Control of cell cycle progression: C li d d t ki Cyclin-dependent kinases To enter S phase or M phase, cell must activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) CDKs are protein kinases that require binding to another protein known as a cyclin to become catalytically active Only a single CDK catalytic subunit (CDK1 or cdc2) in lower eukaryotes e g S cerevisiae or budding yeast lower eukaryotes e.g. S. cerevisiae Multiple Cdk kinases with stage transition-specific roles in multicellular eukaryotes Activity and substrate specificity are regulated by their association with cyclins, proteins levels oscillate with specific stages of the cell cycle
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Control of cell cycle progression: li d CDK cyclins and CDKs Different CDKs together with different cyclins, turn on key events that enable progress through the cell cycle Cdk1-cyclin A and Cdk1-cyclin B act at the G2/M transition to trigger mitosis G1 CDKs: cdk2-cyclin E and cdk2-cyclin A cdk4-cyclin D and cdk6-cyclin D Simple early embryo cell cycle Late embryo to adult cell cycle
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Roles of cyclin-CDKs Roles of cyclin CDKs
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