CSB349L2 - CSB349 Lecture 2 Welcome to the genome: Repeats...

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CSB349 Lecture 2 September 15 th , 2010 Welcome to the genome: Repeats Prof. Alan Moses email: alan.moses@utoronto.ca Wednesday lectures are usually an hour, not the full two hours. Tutorials start this week. Mine is 1701? w/ James in SS1080. The majority of the items discussed in class will have been discussed previously however, this class will go over the experiments which lead to the discoveries that we discuss. Prof. Moses wants to give a tour of what is DNA and of gene regulation at the level of proteins. Genome (transcriptional units, repetitive DNA, non-repetitive and non-coding DNA, reversible gene silencing, modular regulatory elements) Transcriptome Proteome (Post-translationally modified and unmodified proteins …e.g. enzymatically cleaved; covalently modified). Prof. Moses insisted the use of fig 7-5 from Alberts. He is going to discuss the genome and transcriptional control and then protein activity control. For the purposes of understanding genes, a simple plastic model is not informative or accurate. The question to be discussed is what is really in the human genome? The human genome is probably one of the few genomes that we have a complete sequence for that is represented of a species that wasn’t selected for a particular biological property. There might be reasons why it is a representative of a genome that was created by evolution rather than chosen by us. The era where all of us will have our genome sequenced is arriving soon. The human genome is 3.08 gigabases but only 2.85 gigabases was sequenced. Missing 200 million bases and most of that is heterchromatin, telomeres, and repetitive DNA. There was a 10^-5 error rate (which is a mistake every 1 in 100,000). The human genome is largely composed of non-transposable elements (55%), protein coding genes only make up a small percent. .most is non-coding. A large portion (45%) is composed of repetitive sequences. Why does the genome have so much space devoted to things which are not genes. Most of our genome is not actually human genes. Only 20,000 -25,000 is actually human protein-coding genes. Repetitive sequences. There are many types of repetitive DNA. Mechanistic classification. 1. Tandemly repeated sequences (arranged in tandem on the genome, next to each other, in big blocks in genome sequence) a. Satellite DNA (largest pieces of tandem DNA. Classic type is centromeres: huge pieces of heterochromatic DNA made of simple repeating units. 10, 50, 100 bps repeated over and over)
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CSB349 Lecture 2 September 15 th , 2010 b. Minisatellite DNA (smaller, like telomeres. Made of small repeating units 10-12 bps repeated
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course CSB CSB349 taught by Professor V.tropepe,a.moses during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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CSB349L2 - CSB349 Lecture 2 Welcome to the genome: Repeats...

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