CSB349L18 - CSB349 Lecture 18 Reprogramming Somatic cell...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CSB349 Lecture 18 November 22 nd Reprogramming: Somatic cell nuclear transfer Map where SNPs are and look at same gene and see if the SNPs are from one nucleus vs. the other. Design your own transgenes that express a reporter that will only be expressed in certain cells, like neurons. If the cell is being reprogrammed, the gene will actually be expressed, otherwise not, For reprogramming to occur, the cell must be producing a microenvironment that induces changes. The donor cell will adapt to the new environment. In circumstances where you can get nuclear reprogramming without cell fusion, you need the right environment (phenotypic plasticity). You have to rule out cell fusion first. Another way of doing this is to do technique of nuclear transfer. Just take out nucleus and move it to another cell. The nucleus can be reprogrammed. The donor nucleus, if you take it from an advanced stage of differentiation, it is less manageable to be reprogrammed, unlike an embryonic cell. Differentiated doesn’t work too well. The frequency with which this experiment is successful (taking a nucleus from an existing cell, putting it in another organism), is very very very low. 1%. Maybe the only time you get success is when you transfer over a stem cell nucleus without you even knowing (progenitor cell).
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CSB349 Lecture 18 November 22 nd The amphibian egg is large relative to most mammalian eggs. Difficult in mice. In early experiments, they used mouse eggs but kept the nucleus of the egg and transferred over a new nucleus. Not so great success with this. Then they copied the standard amphibian approach which was to first enucleate the host then add the new nucleus. One approach was to use the zygote instead of the egg as a host (fertilized egg instead), the timing is so short as the embryo environment should be as permissive as the zygote environment. Zygote host was not as good though. Now this technique does work. Number of technical modifications to make it work (clone sheep). The egg cytoplasm is the most permissive microenvironment for a new diploid nucleus to be inserted. The early zygote CAN be a reasonable host but it has to be the right environment (e.g. when arrested at metaphase). But egg environment is best.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern