OCS Study Guide TEST 1

OCS Study Guide TEST 1 - General Study Guide: Test 1...

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General Study Guide: Test 1 Garrison version 7, chapter 1 and 2 are reversed. Go over all powerpoint slides and concepts discussed. Chapter 1 Knowing the Ocean World 1. Percent earth covered by water; how much of fresh water is in ocean? 71% of the earth is covered in water, 2.5% fresh 2. Characteristics of World Ocean; average depth, elevation, temperature, salt a. Average depth: 3796m (12,451 ft) b. Average land elevation: 840m (2,772 ft) c. Average temperature: 3.9 C (39 F) d. Average percent of salt: 3.4% 3. Scientific method a. Hypothesis: a speculation about the natural world that can be tested and verified or disproved by further observations and controlled experiments b. Experiment: a test that simplifies observation in nature of in the laboratory by manipulating or controlling the conditions under which the observations are made c. Theory: a statement that explains the observations d. Laws: summarize experimental observations 4. Early explorers – chronology from 30,000 years ago to 1900s Prince Henry the Navigator: third son of the royal family of Portugal a. Established a center at Sagres for the study of marine science and navigation b. Ferdinand Magellan: a Portuguese navigator in the service to Spain, to believe that he could open a westerly trade route to the Orient i. First to travel around the whole globe was Magellan (1519-1521) c. United States Exploring Expedition: launched in 1838, Lt. Charles Wilkes, Challenger voyage i. Primarily a naval expedition but helped establish the natural sciences as reputable professions in America 5. Major reasons for exploration a. Early peoples traveled the ocean for economic reasons b. Voyaging: traveling on the ocean for a specific purpose i. First direct evidence if this comes from records of trade on the Mediterranean ii. First regular ocean traders were probably the Cretans of the Phoenicians, who inherited maritime supremacy in the Mediterranean after the Cretan civilization was destroyed by earthquakes and political instability around 1200 BC 6. Library of Alexandria and librarians
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Systematic Study of the Ocean Began at the Library of Alexandria: Library of Alexandria: founded in the third century BC at the behest of Alexander the Great; the library constituted the greatest accumulation of ancient writings; considered the first university in the world 7. What of importance to oceanography are following known for: Eratosthenes, Chinese culture, Columbus, Cook, Franklin, Maury, Darwin, Harrison, Nansen a. As the dark ages distracted Europeans, Chinese navigators became more skilled, and their vessels grew larger and more seaworthy i. purpose: to display the superiority of Chinese culture, they thought they had everything and were the superior culture ii. compass iii. watertight compartments iv. central rudder (adopted in Europe 1100 AD) v. sophisticated sails b. Columbus used the stars to find latitude and their position in reference to N or S c. Ben Franklin
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course OCS 1005 taught by Professor Condrey during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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OCS Study Guide TEST 1 - General Study Guide: Test 1...

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