chapter 10 - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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Department of Department of 1 Chemistry CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I Essential Elements: Chemistry, Life & Health Ch.10: Chemical Bonding Department of 2 Chemistry Bonding • Involves transfer or sharing of outer electrons, usually to acquire a stable configuration (Lewis) Na [Ne]3s 1 becomes Na + [Ne] and Cl [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 becomes Cl [Ar] Ionic bonding ( transfer of electrons) p. 396 (374, 9 th ed.) Department of 3 Chemistry Covalent Bonding • Covalent bonding Sharing of electrons – Often to attain an octet of electrons – Often between 2 non-metals Coordinate covalent bond – One atom provides both e for a bond –e .g . p. 399-401 (375-377, 9 th ed.) Department of Department of 4 Chemistry Electronegativity (EN) – Fig. 10-6 • Atom’s ability to compete for e in a bond • Pauling scale: F 4.0 (highest EN) p. 404-406 (381-382, 9 th ed.) Department of Department of 5 Chemistry Bond Polarity Polar covalent bonds Unequal sharing of e – Indicated by polar arrow and partial charges •D i c t a t e d b y Δ EN between atoms Δ EN Bonding Example Large Ionic Intermediate Polar Covalent Zero (Small) Covalent • Percent ionic character of a bond involving a certain element (e.g. Cl) decreases across a period δ + δ - HC l p. 402-404 (378-380, 9 th ed.) Department of Department of 6 Chemistry Percent ionic character vs. Δ EN 0.4 1.9 Approximately: 0 0.4 Fig. 10-7 p. 406 (382, 9 th ed.)
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Department of Department of 7 Chemistry Electrostatic potential maps: Fig. 10-5 NaCl HCl Cl 2 Effect of EN on charge distribution p. 403 (380, 9 th ed.) Department of 8 Chemistry Lewis Structures • Show bonding (b) and non-bonding (nb) e , and formal charges • Octet can be achieved by combination of bonding and nonbonding e • Bonding e can be single, double, triple bonds p. 408 (384, 9 th ed.) Department of 9 Chemistry Drawing Lewis Structures 1. •A d d e for negative charge, subtract e for positive charge 2. Draw skeletal structure (central & terminal atoms) H and F are always terminal 3. for each single bond of skeleton 4. Use remaining e Only 2 e for H 5. Subtract e used for terminal octets 6. If e remain, place on central atom p. 409-411 (385-388, 9 th ed.) Department of Department of 10 Chemistry
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course CHEM 1a03 taught by Professor Landry during the Fall '08 term at McMaster University.

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chapter 10 - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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