Lecture9 - CE 124A CE 124A ECE 124A ECE 124A LSI Principles...

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Unformatted text preview: CE 124A CE 124A ECE 124A ECE 124A LSI Principles LSI Principles VLSI Principles VLSI Principles ecture 9 ecture 9 Lecture 9 Lecture 9 CMOS, Resistive CMOS, Resistive-Load, and Pseudo Load, and Pseudo-NMOS Inverters: NMOS Inverters: esign and Circuit Characteristics esign and Circuit Characteristics Design and Circuit Characteristics Design and Circuit Characteristics Prof. Kaustav Banerjee Electrical and Computer Engineering E-mail: [email protected] Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee Inverter Operation Inverter Operation Inverter is the simplest digital logic gate ‘0’ ‘1’ In Out 1 Many different circuit styles possible esistive ad ‘1’ ‘0’ 0 1 1 Resistive-load Pseudo-NMOS CMOS Dynamic Important characteristics erformance (operating speed or delay through Performance (operating speed or delay through the gate) Power/Energy consumption obustness (tolerance to noise) Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee Robustness (tolerance to noise) Cost (complexity and area) CMOS Inverter CMOS Inverter The most widely used gate…. Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee Inverter model: VTC Inverter model: VTC Voltage transfer curve (VTC): plot of output voltage Vout vs. input voltage Vin Inverter Vin Vout Vcc ideal Ideal digital inverter: When Vin=0, Vout actual Vout=Vcc When Vin=Vcc, out=0 Vcc Vout=0 Sharp transition region Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee Vin Actual inverter: V Actual inverter: V H and V and V L V OH and V OL represent e “high” and “low” the high and low output voltages of the inverter V OH = output voltage when Vin = ‘0’ Vout V OH V OL = output voltage when Vin = ‘1’ Vcc V OL Ideally, V OH = Vcc Vin Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee V OL = 0 L d V d V H V OL OL and V and V OH OH In transfer function rms: terms: V OL = f(V OH ) V OH = f(V OL ) V OH f = inverter transfer function ifference (V- is Vout Difference (V OH V OL ) is the voltage swing of the gate Vcc Vin V OL V OL V OH Full-swing logic swings from ground to Vcc Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee Inverter Threshold Inverter Threshold Inverter switching threshold: Point where voltage ansfer curve intersects Vout=Vin transfer curve intersects line Vout=Vin Represents the point at Vout V OH V which the inverter switches state ormally V cc/2 Vcc V OL M Normally, V M Vcc/2 – Why? Vin Lecture 9, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles Kaustav Banerjee oise Margins…. oise Margins…. Noise Margins…. Noise Margins…....
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